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three higher trainings
(lhagpé labpa sum, Wyl. lhag pa'i bslab pa gsum)
The threefold training (Sanskrit: tri-śikṣa; Pali:tri-sikkhā) refers to training in:
- Higher virtue (Sanskrit: adhiśīlaśikṣa; Pali: adhi-sīla-sikkhā)
- Higher meditation (Sanskrit: samādhiśikṣa; Pali: adhi-citta-sikkhā)
- Higher wisdom (Sanskrit: prajñāśikṣa; Pali: adhi-paññā-sikkhā)
In the Pali Canon
In the Anguttara Nikaya, training in "higher virtue" includes following the Patimokkha, training in "higher mind" (sometimes simply referred to as "concentration") includes entering and dwelling in the four jhanas, and training in "higher wisdom" includes directly perceiving the Four Noble Truths.
In several canonical discourses, a more "gradual" instruction (anupubbikathā) is provided to receptive lay people (see also, gradual training). This latter instruction culminates in the teaching of the Four Noble Truths which in itself concludes with the Noble Eightfold Path, the constituents of which can be mapped to this threefold training (see below).
Similarity to threefold partition of the Noble Eightfold Path
The Buddha's threefold training is similar to the threefold grouping of the Noble Eightfold Path articulated by Bhikkhuni Dhammadinna in Culavedalla Sutta ("The Shorter Set of Questions-And-Answers Discourse," MN 44): virtue (sīlakkhandha), concentration (samādhikkhandha), wisdom (paññākkhandha ). These three-part schemes simplify and organize the Eightfold Path as follows:
|Threefold Partition||Eightfold Path|
|Group||Eightfold Path||Method of Practice|
|VIRTUE||Right Speech||Five Laymen Vows|
|MIND||Right Effort||Dwelling in the four jhanas (meditation)|
|WISDOM||Right View||Knowing Four Noble Truths|
- See AN 3:88 (Thanissaro, 1998a).
- See AN 3.89 (Thanissaro, 1998b).
- Thanissaro (1998c).
- Nyanaponika Thera and Bhikkhu Bodhi (trans. and ed.) (1999). Numerical Discourses of the Buddha: An Anthology of Suttas from the Anguttara Nikaya. Walnut Creek, CA: Altamira Press. ISBN 0-7425-0405-0.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1998a). AN 3.88: Sikkha Sutta - Trainings (1). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an03/an03.088.than.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1998b). AN 3.89: Sikkha Sutta - Trainings (2). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an03/an03.089.than.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1998c). MN 44: Culavedalla Sutta: The Shorter Set of Questions-and-Answers. Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.044.than.html.
- English translation and romanized Pali transliteration of the Anguttara Nikaya's Book of Threes' Monk (samana) chapter, including AN 3:82 to 3:92 (metta.lk)
- "Threefold Training", talk by Mahasi Sayadaw.
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