Difference between revisions of "Bhutan"

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'''Bhutan''' ({{IPAc-en|b|uː|ˈ|t|ɑː|n}}; {{bo-textonly|འབྲུག་ཡུལ་}} ''{{transl|dz|[[Druk]] Yul}}''), officially the '''Kingdom of Bhutan''' ({{bo-textonly|འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་}} ''{{lang|dz-Latn|Druk Gyal Khap}}''),<ref name=Driem478>{{cite book |last1=Driem |first1=George van |title=Dzongkha {{=}} Rdoṅ-kha |date=1998 |publisher=Research School, CNWS |location=Leiden |isbn=90-5789-002-X |page=478 }}</ref> is a landlocked country in [[South Asia]]. Located in the [[Eastern Himalayas]], it is bordered by [[Tibet Autonomous Region]] of [[China]] in the north, the [[Sikkim]] state of [[India]] and the [[Chumbi Valley]] of [[Tibet]] in the west, the [[Arunachal Pradesh]] state of India in the east, and the states of [[Assam]] and [[West Bengal]] in the south. Bhutan is geopolitically in South Asia and is the region's second least populous nation after the [[Maldives]]. [[Thimphu]] is its capital and largest city, while [[Phuntsholing]] is its financial center.
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'''Bhutan''' ({{bo-textonly|འབྲུག་ཡུལ་}} ''{{transl|dz|[[Druk]] Yul}}''), officially the '''Kingdom of Bhutan''' ({{bo-textonly|འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་}} ''{{lang|dz-Latn|Druk Gyal Khap}}''),<ref name=Driem478>{{cite book |last1=Driem |first1=George van |title=Dzongkha {{=}} Rdoṅ-kha |date=1998 |publisher=Research School, CNWS |location=Leiden |isbn=90-5789-002-X |page=478 }}</ref> is a landlocked country in [[South Asia]]. Located in the [[Eastern Himalayas]], it is bordered by [[Tibet Autonomous Region]] of [[China]] in the north, the [[Sikkim]] state of [[India]] and the [[Chumbi Valley]] of [[Tibet]] in the west, the [[Arunachal Pradesh]] state of India in the east, and the states of [[Assam]] and [[West Bengal]] in the south.  
  
The [[independence of Bhutan]] has endured for centuries and it has never been colonized in [[History of Bhutan|its history]]. Situated on the ancient [[Silk Road]] between [[Tibet]], the [[Indian subcontinent]] and [[Southeast Asia]], the Bhutanese state developed a distinct [[Bhutanese culture|national identity]] based on Buddhism. Headed by a spiritual leader known as the [[Zhabdrung Rinpoche]], the territory was composed of many fiefdoms and governed as a Buddhist theocracy. Following a civil war in the 19th century, the [[House of Wangchuck]] reunited the country and established relations with the British Empire. Bhutan fostered a strategic partnership with India during the rise of Chinese communism and has a disputed border with the People's Republic of China. In 2008, it transitioned from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy and held the first election to the [[National Assembly of Bhutan]].  The [[National Assembly of Bhutan]] is part of the bicameral parliament of the [[Bhutanese democracy]].<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1582573/What-use-is-democracy-to-idyllic-Bhutan.html|title=What use is democracy to idyllic Bhutan?|last=Dalrymple|first=William|date=2008-03-23|work=The Telegraph|access-date=2017-10-24|language=en-GB|issn=0307-1235}}</ref>
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Situated on the ancient [[Silk Road]] between [[Tibet]], the [[Indian subcontinent]] and [[Southeast Asia]], the Bhutanese state developed a distinct [[Bhutanese culture|national identity]] based on Buddhism. Headed by a spiritual leader known as the [[Zhabdrung Rinpoche]], the territory was composed of many fiefdoms and governed as a Buddhist theocracy. Following a civil war in the 19th century, the [[House of Wangchuck]] reunited the country and established relations with the British Empire. Bhutan fostered a strategic partnership with India during the rise of Chinese communism and has a disputed border with the People's Republic of China. In 2008, it transitioned from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy and held the first election to the [[National Assembly of Bhutan]].<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1582573/What-use-is-democracy-to-idyllic-Bhutan.html|title=What use is democracy to idyllic Bhutan?|last=Dalrymple|first=William|date=2008-03-23|work=The Telegraph|access-date=2017-10-24|language=en-GB|issn=0307-1235}}</ref>
 
 
The country's landscape ranges from lush subtropical plains in the south to the sub-alpine Himalayan mountains in the north, where there are peaks in excess of {{nowrap|{{convert|7000|m|ft}}}}. The highest mountain in Bhutan is the [[Gangkhar Puensum]], which is also a strong candidate for the highest unclimbed mountain in the world. There is also diverse [[wildlife in Bhutan]].
 
 
 
In South Asia, Bhutan ranks first in [[Index of Economic Freedom|economic freedom]], [[Ease of doing business index|ease of doing business]], and [[Global Peace Index|peace]]; second in per capita income; and is the [[Corruption Perceptions Index|least corrupt country]] as of 2016. However, Bhutan continues to be a [[least developed country]]. Hydroelectricity accounts for the major share of its exports.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.adb.org/features/bhutan-s-hydropower-sector-12-things-know |title=Bhutan's Hydropower Sector: 12 Things to Know |publisher=Asian Development Bank |date=30 January 2014 }}</ref> [[Politics of Bhutan|The government]] is a parliamentary democracy; the head of state is the [[King of Bhutan]], known as the "[[Druk Gyalpo|Dragon King]]". Bhutan maintains diplomatic relations with 52 countries and the European Union, but does not have formal ties with the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. It is a member of the United Nations, [[SAARC]], [[BIMSTEC]] and the [[Non Aligned Movement]]. The Royal Bhutan Army maintains extensive military relations with the Indian Armed Forces.
 
 
 
Bhutan is also notable for pioneering the concept of [[Gross National Happiness|gross national happiness]].<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.ophi.org.uk/policy/national-policy/gross-national-happiness-index/|title=Bhutan’s Gross National Happiness Index {{!}} OPHI|website=www.ophi.org.uk|language=en-US|access-date=2017-10-02}}</ref>
 
 
 
==Etymology==
 
The precise etymology of "Bhutan" is unknown, although it is likely to derive from the [[Old Tibetan|Tibetan]] [[Exonym and endonym|endonym]] "Bod" used for [[Tibet]]. Traditionally, it is taken to be a transcription of the [[Sanskrit]] ''Bhoṭa-anta'' "end of [[Tibet]]", a reference to Bhutan's position as the southern extremity of the Tibetan plateau and culture.<ref>{{cite book |title = A Cultural History of Bhutan |volume = 1 |first = Balaram |last = Chakravarti |publisher = Hilltop |year = 1979 |page = 7 |url = https://books.google.com/books?id=6VxuAAAAMAAJ }}</ref><ref name="Names&Histories">Taylor, Isaac. ''[https://archive.org/details/namesandtheirhi00taylgoog Names and Their Histories; a Handbook of Historical Geography and Topographical Nomenclature]''. Gale Research Co. (Detroit), 1898. Retrieved 24 September 2011.</ref><ref name="lcweb2.loc.gov">U.S. Library of Congress, Country Studies, Bhutan, HISTORICAL SETTING, BHUTAN
 
Origins and Early Settlement, A.D. 600–1600, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+bt0014)</ref>
 
 
 
Since the 17th century the official name of Bhutan has been ''Druk yul'' (country of the [[Drukpa Lineage]], the Dragon People, or the Land of the Thunder Dragon, a reference to the country's dominant Buddhist sect) and Bhutan only appears in English-language official correspondence.<ref name="lcweb2.loc.gov"/>
 
 
 
Names similar to Bhutan — including Bohtan, Buhtan, Bottanthis, Bottan and Bottanter — began to appear in Europe around the 1580s. [[Jean-Baptiste Tavernier]]'s 1676 ''Six Voyages'' is the first to record the name ''Boutan''. However, in every case, these seem to have been describing not modern Bhutan but the [[Tibet (1912–51)|Kingdom of Tibet]]. The modern distinction between the two did not begin until well into the Scottish explorer [[George Bogle (diplomat)|George Bogle]]'s 1774 expedition — realizing the differences between the two regions, cultures and states, his final report to the [[East India Company]] formally proposed labelling the [[Druk Desi]]'s kingdom as "Boutan" and the [[Panchen Lama]]'s as "Tibet". The EIC's surveyor general [[James Rennell]] first anglicized the French name as Bootan and then popularized the distinction between it and greater Tibet.<ref name="Kuensel">[https://web.archive.org/web/20120216090138/http://www.keystobhutan.com/bhutan/bhutan_history_europe.php "History of Bhutan: How Europe heard about Bhutan"]. ''Kuensel''. 24 August 2003. Retrieved 28 September 2011.</ref>
 
 
 
Locally, Bhutan has been known by many names. One of the earliest Western records of Bhutan, the 1627 ''Relação'' of the [[Kingdom of Portugal|Portuguese]] [[Jesuit]]s [[Estêvão Cacella]] and [[João Cabral]], records its name variously as ''Cambirasi'' (among the [[Koch Bihar]]is<ref>Cacella, Estêvão. Trans. by Baillie, Luiza Maria. [http://www.thlib.org/static/reprints/jbs/JBS_01_01_01.pdf "Report which Father Estevao Cacella of the Society of Jesus Sent to Father Alberto Laercio, Provincial of the Province of Malabar of East India, about His Journey to Cathay, until He Came to the Kingdom of Bhotanta"] (1627). Retrieved 28 September 2011.</ref>), ''Potente'', and ''Mon'' (an endonym for southern Tibet).<ref name="Kuensel"/> The first time a separate Kingdom of Bhutan appeared on a western map, it did so under its local name as "Broukpa".<ref name="Kuensel"/> Others including ''Lho Mon'' ("Dark Southland"), ''Lho Tsendenjong'' ("Southland of the [[Cypress]]"), ''Lhomen Khazhi'' ("Southland of the Four Approaches") and ''Lho Menjong'' ("Southland of the [[medicinal herb|Herbs]]").<ref>{{cite book |title = Beneath Blossom Rain: Discovering Bhutan on the Toughest Trek in the World |series = Outdoor Lives |first = Kevin |last = Grange |publisher = University of Nebraska Press |year = 2011 |isbn = 0-8032-3433-3 |url = https://books.google.com/books?id=bWco7DY94fsC }}</ref><ref>{{cite book |url = https://books.google.com/books?id=ZvrWAAAAMAAJ |title = The Greenwood Encyclopedia of World Folklore and Folklife |volume = 2 |series = The Greenwood Encyclopedia of World Folklore and Folklife: Southeast Asia and India, Central and East Asia, Middle East |first = William M. |last = Clements |publisher = Greenwood Press |year = 2006 |isbn = 0-313-32849-8 |page = 105 }}</ref>
 
 
 
==History==
 
See: {{Wikipedia|History of Bhutan}}
 
 
 
==Geography==
 
See: {{Wikipedia|Geography of Bhutan}}
 
  
 
==Notes==
 
==Notes==
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==External links==
 
==External links==
* [http://www.bhutan.gov.bt/ Bhutan.gov.bt] – Official Government Web Portal of Bhutan
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* {{Wikipedia|Bhutan}}
* [http://www.library.gov.bt/misc/bhutan-links.html Bhutan Links] at the National Library of Bhutan.
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* [http://www.bhutan.gov.bt/ Bhutan.gov.bt]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-12480707 Bhutan profile], BBC News.
 
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20120829213752/http://ucblibraries.colorado.edu/govpubs/for/bhutan.htm Bhutan] from ''UCB Libraries GovPubs''.
 
 
 
* [http://www.tourism.gov.bt/ Tourism Council of Bhutan]
 
 
 
  
[[Category:Bhutan| ]]
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[[Category:Buddhism in Bhutan]]
 
[[Category:Countries]]
 
[[Category:Countries]]
 
[[Category:Tibetan Buddhist places]]
 
[[Category:Tibetan Buddhist places]]
  
 
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Latest revision as of 13:19, 27 July 2019

This article is a 'sketch' of a biographical, historical or geographical subject. See the external links for more information on this subject. Sketch sailboat by me 75px.png

Bhutan (འབྲུག་ཡུལ་ Druk Yul), officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (འབྲུག་རྒྱལ་ཁབ་ Druk Gyal Khap),[1] is a landlocked country in South Asia. Located in the Eastern Himalayas, it is bordered by Tibet Autonomous Region of China in the north, the Sikkim state of India and the Chumbi Valley of Tibet in the west, the Arunachal Pradesh state of India in the east, and the states of Assam and West Bengal in the south.

Situated on the ancient Silk Road between Tibet, the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, the Bhutanese state developed a distinct national identity based on Buddhism. Headed by a spiritual leader known as the Zhabdrung Rinpoche, the territory was composed of many fiefdoms and governed as a Buddhist theocracy. Following a civil war in the 19th century, the House of Wangchuck reunited the country and established relations with the British Empire. Bhutan fostered a strategic partnership with India during the rise of Chinese communism and has a disputed border with the People's Republic of China. In 2008, it transitioned from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy and held the first election to the National Assembly of Bhutan.[2]

Notes

  1. Driem, George van (1998). Dzongkha = Rdoṅ-kha. Leiden: Research School, CNWS. p. 478. ISBN 90-5789-002-X. 
  2. Dalrymple, William (2008-03-23). "What use is democracy to idyllic Bhutan?". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2017-10-24. 


External links

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