Difference between revisions of "Eternal Buddha"

From Encyclopedia of Buddhism
Jump to: navigation, search
(External links: AWB {{WP content}})
(References)
(6 intermediate revisions by the same user not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
{{MahayanaBuddhism}}  
+
{{clone}}
 +
In [[East Asian Buddhism]] the Buddha of the [[Lotus Sutra]] is regarded as the '''eternal Buddha'''. It is a popular notion, which may have contributed to the [[tathagatagarbha]] doctrine, although the notion of an ''eternal Buddha'' is not explicitly stated in the Lotus Sutra.
  
The idea of an '''eternal Buddha''' is a notion popularly associated with the Mahayana scripture, the [[Lotus Sutra]], and is also found in other Mahayana sutras.
+
The belief in the Eternal Buddha transcends through time and is commonly associated with [[Shakyamuni Buddha]], but can also refer to both his past and future incarnations. However, no exact definition of the ''Eternal Buddha'' is defined in the Lotus Sutra, which was also revealed by [[Siddhartha Gautama]]; thereby making open interpretations to various religious groups.
  
== Lotus Sutra and Mahaparinirvana Sutra ==
+
==Lotus Sutra and tathagatagarbha doctrine==
The [[Lotus Sutra]] portrays the Buddha as indicating that he became awakened countless, immeasurable, inconceivable myriads of trillions of aeons ("kalpas") ago and that his lifetime is "forever existing and immortal". From the human perspective, it seems as though the Buddha has always existed. The sutra itself, however, does not directly employ the phrase "eternal Buddha"; yet similar notions are found in other Mahayana scriptures, notably the [[Nirvana Sutra|Mahaparinirvana Sutra]], which presents the Buddha as the ultimately real, eternal ("nitya"/ "śāśvata"), unchanging, blissful, pure Self ([[Atman (Buddhism)|Atman]]) who, as the [[Trikaya|Dharmakaya]], knows of no beginning or end.
 
  
The Chinese scholar [[Zhiyi]] [天台] (538–597) viewed Shakyamuni Buddha of Ch 16 of the Lotus Sutra as a unification of the Three Buddha Bodies. That is, Shakyamuni of Ch 16 possesses all Three Bodies. Other sutras are taught from the standpoint of a single Buddha Body, but Ch 16 onwards is taught from a unification of the Three.<ref>Soka Gakkai Dictionary of Buddhism, Soka Gakkai, "Three Bodies"</ref>
+
In east-Asian Buddhism, the Buddha of the [[Lotus Sutra]] is regarded as the eternal Buddha.{{sfn|Williams|2008|p=157}} "The Tathagata´s Lifespan" chapter (ch 16) of the [[Lotus Sutra]] portrays the Buddha as indicating that he became awakened countless aeons ("kalpas") ago.{{sfn|Pye|1978|p=50}}  The sutra itself, however, does not directly employ the phrase "eternal Buddha".{{citation needed|date=July 2015}}
  
Commenting on the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra, Dr. Guang Xing writes:
+
In China the ''Lotus Sutra'' was associated with the ''[[Nirvana Sutra|Mahaparinirvana Sutra]]'', which propagates the [[Buddha-nature|tathagatagarbha-doctrine]], and with the ''[[Awakening of Faith]]''.{{sfn|Williams|2008|p=157}} The Mahaparinirvana Sutra presents the Buddha as eternal, and equates him with the [[Trikaya|Dharmakaya]].{{sfn|Xing|2005|p=89}}{{refn|group=note|Commenting on the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra, Guang Xing writes: "One of the main themes of the ''Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra'' is that the Buddha is eternal, a theme very much in contrast with the Hinayana idea that the Buddha departed for ever after his final nirvana. The Mahayanists assert the eternity of the Buddha in two ways in the ''Mahaparinirvana Sutra''. They state that the Buddha is the ''dharmakaya'', and hence eternal. Next, they re-interpret the liberation of the Buddha as ''mahaparinirvana'' possessing four attributes: eternity, happiness, self and purity. In other words, according to the Mahayanists, the fact that the Buddha abides in the ''mahaparinirvana'' means not that he has departed for ever, but that he perpetually abides in intrinsic quiescence. The Buddha abiding in intrinsic quiescence is none other than the ''dharmakaya'' [...] This ''dharmakaya'' is the ''real'' Buddha. It is on this doctrinal foundation that the ''Mahaparinirvana Sutra'' declares: "the dharmakaya has [the attributes of] eternity (''nitya''), happiness (''sukha''), self (''atman'') and purity (''subha'') and is perpetually free from birth, old age, sickness, death and all other sufferings [...] It exists eternally without change.""{{sfn|Xing|2005|p=89}}}}
  
'One of the main themes of the ''Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra'' is that the Buddha is eternal, a theme very much in contrast with the Hinayana idea that the Buddha departed for ever after his final nirvana. The Mahayanists assert the eternity of the Buddha in two ways in the ''Mahaparinirvana Sutra''. They state that the Buddha is the ''dharmakaya'', and hence eternal. Next, they re-interpret the liberation of the Buddha as ''mahaparinirvana'' possessing four attributes: eternity, happiness, self and purity. In other words, according to the Mahayanists, the fact that the Buddha abides in the ''mahaparinirvana'' means not that he has departed for ever, but that he perpetually abides in intrinsic quiescence. The Buddha abiding in intrinsic quiescence is none other than the ''dharmakaya'' ... This ''dharmakaya'' is the ''real'' Buddha. It is on this doctrinal foundation that the ''Mahaparinirvana Sutra'' declares:"the dharmakaya has [the attributes of] eternity (''nitya''), happiness (''sukha''), self (''atman'') and purity (''subha'') and is perpetually free from birth, old age, sickness, death and all other sufferings ... It exists eternally without change ..."'<ref>Dr. Guang Xing, ''The Concept of the Buddha'', RoutledgeCurzon, London, 2005, p. 89</ref>
+
The ''Lotus Sutra'' itself does hardly seem to accept the tathagatagarbha-teachings.{{sfn|Williams|2008|p=157}} According to Paul Williams, this association may be explained by the systematization of the ''Lotus Sutra'' teachings by the Tiantai school, using teachings from other schools "to equate the Buddha of the ''Lotus Sutra'' with the ultimate truth and to teach a cosmic Buddha."{{sfn|Williams|2008|p=157}}
  
The ''All-Creating King Tantra'' additionally contains a [[panentheism|panentheistic]] vision of [[Samantabhadra]] Buddha as the eternal, primordial Buddha, the Awakened Mind of [[bodhi]], who declares: "From the primordial, I am the Buddhas of the three times [i.e. past, present and future]."
+
==Understanding in east-Asian Buddhism==
 +
===China===
 +
The Chinese [[Tiantai]] scholar [[Zhiyi]] [天台] (538–597) divided the sutra into the "trace teaching" about the historical Shakyamuni Buddha (ch 1-14) and the "origin teaching" (ch 15-28) revealing the original Buddha of inconceivable life span.{{sfn|Fuss|1991|pp=29-30}}{{sfn|Leighton|2007|pp=29-30}} 
 +
Zhiyi viewed Shakyamuni Buddha of Ch 16 of the Lotus Sutra as a unification of the [[Trikaya|three Buddha bodies]], possessing all three bodies, whereas other sutras are taught from the standpoint of a single Buddha body.{{sfn|Buswell|2013|p=473}}{{sfn|The English Buddhist Dictionary Committee|2009|p=}}
  
==Nichiren Buddhism==
+
===Japan===
 +
The [[Nichiren Shu]], [[Rissho Kosei Kai]] and [[Kempon Hokke]] schools of [[Nichiren Buddhism]] revere Shakyamuni of Chapter 16 of the [[Lotus Sutra]] as the eternal Buddha. They also regard Shakyamuni of Ch 16 as a "Unification of the Three Bodies", as taught by Tiantai.{{sfn|The English Buddhist Dictionary Committee|2009|p=}} Other Buddhas, such as Amida of the Pure Land (J. Nembutsu) School, and Mahavairochana of the True Word (J. Shingon) School are seen as provisional manifestations of the Original Buddha Shakyamuni.<ref>Nichiren Daishonin, Rissho Ankoku Ron (Eng. On Establishing the Correct Teaching for the Peace of the Land), 1260 CE</ref>
  
The [[Nichiren Shu]], [[Rissho Kosei Kai]] and [[Kempon Hokke]] schools of [[Nichiren Buddhism]] revere Shakyamuni of Chapter 16 of the [[Lotus Sutra]] as the Eternal Buddha. Shakyamuni of Ch 16 is regarded as a Unification of the Three Bodies, as taught by Tiantai.<ref>Soka Gakkai Dictionary of Buddhism, Soka Gakkai, "Three Bodies"</ref>
+
In [[Jōdo Shinshū|Shin]] or Pure Land Buddhism, [[Amitābha|Amida]] Buddha is viewed as the eternal Buddha who manifested as Shakyamuni in India and who is the personification of Nirvana itself.<ref name=jodo>[http://www.jodo.org/about_plb/what_plb.html What is Pure Land Buddhism?] da Sho-on Hattori, ''A Raft from The Other Shore Honen and the Way of Pure Land Buddhism'', published by Jodo Shu Press</ref><ref>Amida, who attained Buddhahood in the infinite past, / Full of compassion for foolish beings of the five defilements, / Took the form of Sakyamuni Buddha/ And appeared in Gaya. (Shinran, Hymnes of Pure Land, 88)</ref>
This Saha World is regarded as the True Pure Land, because Shakyamuni revealed in the Lotus Sutra that it is His domain, and He remains in the world to preach.<ref>Soka Gakkai Dictionary of Buddhism, Soka Gakkai, 'Pure Land'</ref> Other Buddhas, such as Amida of the Pure Land (J. Nembutsu) School, and Mahavairochana of the True Word (J. Shingon) School are seen as provisional manifestations of the Original Buddha Shakyamuni.<ref>Nichiren Daishonin, Rissho Ankoku Ron (Eng. On Establishing the Correct Teaching for the Peace of the Land), 1260 CE</ref>
 
  
== Shin Buddhism ==
+
[[Shingon Buddhism]] sees [[Buddha Vairocana]] as the personification of the dharmakaya, and hence as the eternal Buddha, and some within Shingon, following [[Kakuban]], equate Vairochana and Amida.<ref> http://www.jsri.jp/English/Pureland/DOCTRINE/nembutsu.htm</ref><ref> Richard Karl Payne, Kenneth Kazuo Tanaka (Editors); 'Approaching the Land of Bliss: Religious Praxis in the Cult of Amitåabha'; Studies in East Asian Buddhism, 17 (Book 17); Univ of Hawaii Pr; 1st Edition edition (October 1, 2003); p.7</ref>
 
 
In [[Jōdo Shinshū|Shin]] Buddhism, [[Amitābha|Amida]] Buddha is viewed as the eternal Buddha who manifested as Shakyamuni in India and who is the personification of Nirvana itself. The Shin Buddhist priest, John Paraskevopoulos, in his monograph on Shin Buddhism, writes:
 
 
 
'In Shin Buddhism, Nirvana or Ultimate Reality (also known as the "Dharma-Body" or ''Dharmakaya'' in the original Sanskrit) has assumed a more concrete form as (a) the Buddha of Infinite Light (''Amitabha'') and Infinite Life (''Amitayus'') and (b) the "Pure Land" or "Land of Utmost Bliss" (''Sukhavati''), the realm over which this Buddha is said to preside.... Amida is the Eternal Buddha who is said to have taken form as Shakyamuni and his teachings in order to become known to us in ways we can readily comprehend.'<ref>John Paraskevopoulos, ''Call of the Infinite: The Way of Shin Buddhism'', Sophia Perennis Publications, California, 2009, pp. 16 - 17</ref>
 
 
 
John Paraskevopoulos elucidates the notion of Nirvana, of which Amida is an embodiment, in the following terms:
 
 
 
'... [Nirvana's] more positive connotation is that of a higher state of being, the dispelling of illusion and the corresponding joy of liberation. An early Buddhist scripture describes Nirvana as: ...the far shore, the subtle, the very difficult to see, the undisintegrating, the unmanifest, the peaceful, the deathless, the sublime, the auspicious, the secure, the destruction of craving, the wonderful, the amazing, the unailing, the unafflicted, dispassion, purity, freedom, the island, the shelter, the asylum, the refuge... (''Samyutta Nikaya'').<ref>John Paraskevopoulos, Call of the Infinite: The Way of Shin Buddhism, California, 2009, p. 21</ref>
 
 
 
This Nirvana is seen as eternal and of one nature, indeed as the essence of all things. According to Paraskevopoulos:
 
 
 
'In Mahayana Buddhism it is taught that there is fundamentally one reality which, in its highest and purest dimension, is experienced as Nirvana. It is also known, as we have seen, as the Dharma-Body (considered as the ultimate form of Being) or "Suchness" (''Tathata'' in Sanskrit) when viewed as the essence of all things ... "The Dharma-Body is eternity, bliss, true self and purity. It is forever free of all birth, ageing, sickness and death" (''Nirvana Sutra'').<ref>Paraskevopoulos, ''Call of the Infinite: The Way of Shin Buddhism'', California, 2009, p. 22</ref>
 
 
 
To attain this Self, however, it is needful to transcend the 'small self' and its pettiness with the help of an 'external' agency, Amida Buddha. This is the view promulgated by the [[Jodo Shinshu]] founding Buddhist master, [[Shinran Shonin]]. John Paraskevopoulos comments on this:
 
 
 
'Shinran's great insight was that we cannot conquer the self by the self. Some kind of external agency is required: (a) to help us to shed light on our ego as it really is in all its petty and baneful guises; and (b) to enable us to subdue the small 'self' with a view to realising the Great Self by awakening to Amida's light.'<ref>John Paraskevopoulos, ''The Call of the Infinite: The Way of Shin Buddhism'', California, 2009, p. 43</ref>
 
 
 
When that Great Self of Amida's light is realised, Shin Buddhism is able to see the Infinite which transcends the care-worn mundane. John Paraskevopoulos concludes his monograph on Shin Buddhism thus:
 
 
 
'It is time we discarded the tired view of Buddhism as a dry and forensic rationalism, lacking in warmth and devotion ... By hearing the call of Amida Buddha we become awakened to true reality and its unfathomable working ... to live a life that dances jubilantly in the resplendent light of the Infinite.'<ref>John Paraskevopoulos, ''The Call of the Infinite: The Way of Shin Buddhism'', California, 2009, p. 81</ref>
 
 
 
==Shingon==
 
 
 
[[Shingon Buddhism]] sees [[Vairochana Buddha]] as the personification of the Dharmakaya, and hence as the Eternal Buddha.
 
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
{{refbegin|2}}
+
{{div col|colwidth=30em}}  
 +
*[[Adi-Buddha]]
 
*[[Angulimaliya Sutra]]
 
*[[Angulimaliya Sutra]]
 
*[[Lotus Sutra]]
 
*[[Lotus Sutra]]
Line 54: Line 34:
 
*[[Tathagatagarbha]]
 
*[[Tathagatagarbha]]
 
*[[Trikaya]]
 
*[[Trikaya]]
{{refend}}
+
*[[Pre-existence of Christ|Eternal Christ]]
 +
{{div col end}}
  
 
==Notes==
 
==Notes==
 +
{{reflist|group=note}}
 +
 +
==References==
 
{{reflist}}
 
{{reflist}}
  
 
==Sources==
 
==Sources==
* Katō Bunno, Tamura Yoshirō, Miyasaka Kōjirō, tr. (1975), [https://web.archive.org/web/20131019124924/http://www.rk-world.org/publications/ThreefoldLotusSutra.pdf ''The Threefold Lotus Sutra] : The Sutra of Innumerable Meanings; The Sutra of the Lotus Flower of the Wonderful Law; The Sutra of Meditation on the Bodhisattva Universal Virtue''. New York & Tōkyō: Weatherhill & Kōsei Publishing.
+
{{refbegin}}
* Yamamoto, Kosho (tr.), Page, Tony (ed.) (1999&ndash;2000).[https://web.archive.org/web/20131019072030/http://webzoom.freewebs.com/nirvana-sutra/convenient/Mahaparinirvana_Sutra_Yamamoto_Page_2007.pdf ''The Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra''] in 12 volumes. London: Nirvana Publications
+
* {{Citation |last=Buswell|first=Robert E., ed.|title=Encyclopedia of Buddhism|publisher=Macmillan Reference USA|year=2004|isbn=0-02-865718-7|page=}}
* ''The Sovereign All-Creating Mind: The Motherly Buddha'' (Sri Satguru Publications, Delhi 1992), tr. by E.K. Neumaier-Dargyay
+
* {{Citation |last=Fuss|first=Michael |title=Buddhavacana and Dei verbum : a phenomenological and theological comparison of scriptural inspiration in the Saddharmapuṇḍarīka sūtra and in the Christian tradition|publisher=Leiden; New York: E.J. Brill|year=1991|isbn=9004089918|page=}}
 
+
* Leighton, Taigen Dan (2007). Visions of Awakening Space and Time, Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press
==External links==
+
* Pye, Michael (1978). Skilful Means - A concept in Mahayana Buddhism. London, UK: Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd. 2nd edition: Routledge 2003. {{ISBN|0-7156-1266-2}}.
* [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/ Access to Insight]
+
* {{Cite book| last =The English Buddhist Dictionary Committee| title =The Soka Gakkai Dictionary of Buddhism| publisher =Motilal Banarsidass| year =2009| location =Delhi| url =http://www.nichirenlibrary.org/en/dic/Content/T/104| isbn =9788120833340| url-status =bot: unknown| archiveurl =https://web.archive.org/web/20150709114712/http://www.nichirenlibrary.org/en/dic/Content/T/104| archivedate =2015-07-09}}
 
+
* {{Citation | last =Williams | first =Paul | year =2008 | title =Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations | publisher =Routledge}}
{{Lotus Sutra}}
+
* {{Citation | last =Xing | first =Guang| year =2005 | title =The Concept of the Buddha | publisher =RoutledgeCurzon}}
{{WP content}}  
+
{{refend}}
[[Category:Imported]]
 
  
 +
==Further reading==
 +
* {{cite book|last1=Kubo|first1=Tsugunari|last2=Yuyama|first2=Akira, trans.|title=The Lotus Sutra|date=2007|publisher=Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research|location=Berkeley, Calif.|isbn=978-1-886439-39-9|url=http://www.bdkamerica.org/digital/dBET_T0262_LotusSutra_2007.pdf|url-status=dead|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150521183528/http://www.bdkamerica.org/digital/dBET_T0262_LotusSutra_2007.pdf|archivedate=2015-05-21}}
 +
* {{cite book|author1=Tanabe, George Joji|author2=Tanabe, Willa Jane|title=The Lotus Sutra in Japanese Culture|date=1989|publisher=[[University of Hawaii Press]]|location=[[Honolulu]]|isbn=9780824811983|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=O03rvTi0vwAC&printsec=frontcover|accessdate=5 July 2015}}
 +
* {{cite journal|last1=Radich|first1=Michael|title=Immortal Buddhas and their indestructible embodiments|journal=Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies|date=2011|volume=34|issue=1–2|pages=227–290|url=http://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/jiabs/issue/view/1270}}
 +
* Xing, Guang (2005). [http://hub.hku.hk/bitstream/10722/44513/1/content.pdf?accept=1The Problem of the Buddha´s Short Lifespan], World Hongming Philosophical Quarterly 12, 1-12
 +
* {{cite journal|last1=Lai|first1=Whalen W.|title=The Predocetic "Finite Buddhakāya" in the "Lotus Sūtra": In Search of the Illusive Dharmakāya Therein|journal=Journal of the American Academy of Religion|date=1981|volume=49|issue=3|pages=447–469}}
  
 
[[Category:Buddhas]]
 
[[Category:Buddhas]]
 
[[Category:Buddhist philosophical concepts]]
 
[[Category:Buddhist philosophical concepts]]
 
[[Category:Nichiren Buddhism]]
 
[[Category:Nichiren Buddhism]]
[[Category:All people - needs categorization]]
+
{{WP content}}

Revision as of 06:55, 20 May 2020

This article is a clone.
It is a copy of a Wikipedia article that has not been vetted by our editors.
WP-to-EOB-clone-icon.png

In East Asian Buddhism the Buddha of the Lotus Sutra is regarded as the eternal Buddha. It is a popular notion, which may have contributed to the tathagatagarbha doctrine, although the notion of an eternal Buddha is not explicitly stated in the Lotus Sutra.

The belief in the Eternal Buddha transcends through time and is commonly associated with Shakyamuni Buddha, but can also refer to both his past and future incarnations. However, no exact definition of the Eternal Buddha is defined in the Lotus Sutra, which was also revealed by Siddhartha Gautama; thereby making open interpretations to various religious groups.

Lotus Sutra and tathagatagarbha doctrine

In east-Asian Buddhism, the Buddha of the Lotus Sutra is regarded as the eternal Buddha.[1] "The Tathagata´s Lifespan" chapter (ch 16) of the Lotus Sutra portrays the Buddha as indicating that he became awakened countless aeons ("kalpas") ago.[2] The sutra itself, however, does not directly employ the phrase "eternal Buddha".[citation needed]

In China the Lotus Sutra was associated with the Mahaparinirvana Sutra, which propagates the tathagatagarbha-doctrine, and with the Awakening of Faith.[1] The Mahaparinirvana Sutra presents the Buddha as eternal, and equates him with the Dharmakaya.[3][note 1]

The Lotus Sutra itself does hardly seem to accept the tathagatagarbha-teachings.[1] According to Paul Williams, this association may be explained by the systematization of the Lotus Sutra teachings by the Tiantai school, using teachings from other schools "to equate the Buddha of the Lotus Sutra with the ultimate truth and to teach a cosmic Buddha."[1]

Understanding in east-Asian Buddhism

China

The Chinese Tiantai scholar Zhiyi [天台] (538–597) divided the sutra into the "trace teaching" about the historical Shakyamuni Buddha (ch 1-14) and the "origin teaching" (ch 15-28) revealing the original Buddha of inconceivable life span.[4][5] Zhiyi viewed Shakyamuni Buddha of Ch 16 of the Lotus Sutra as a unification of the three Buddha bodies, possessing all three bodies, whereas other sutras are taught from the standpoint of a single Buddha body.[6][7]

Japan

The Nichiren Shu, Rissho Kosei Kai and Kempon Hokke schools of Nichiren Buddhism revere Shakyamuni of Chapter 16 of the Lotus Sutra as the eternal Buddha. They also regard Shakyamuni of Ch 16 as a "Unification of the Three Bodies", as taught by Tiantai.[7] Other Buddhas, such as Amida of the Pure Land (J. Nembutsu) School, and Mahavairochana of the True Word (J. Shingon) School are seen as provisional manifestations of the Original Buddha Shakyamuni.[8]

In Shin or Pure Land Buddhism, Amida Buddha is viewed as the eternal Buddha who manifested as Shakyamuni in India and who is the personification of Nirvana itself.[9][10]

Shingon Buddhism sees Buddha Vairocana as the personification of the dharmakaya, and hence as the eternal Buddha, and some within Shingon, following Kakuban, equate Vairochana and Amida.[11][12]

See also

Notes

  1. Commenting on the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra, Guang Xing writes: "One of the main themes of the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra is that the Buddha is eternal, a theme very much in contrast with the Hinayana idea that the Buddha departed for ever after his final nirvana. The Mahayanists assert the eternity of the Buddha in two ways in the Mahaparinirvana Sutra. They state that the Buddha is the dharmakaya, and hence eternal. Next, they re-interpret the liberation of the Buddha as mahaparinirvana possessing four attributes: eternity, happiness, self and purity. In other words, according to the Mahayanists, the fact that the Buddha abides in the mahaparinirvana means not that he has departed for ever, but that he perpetually abides in intrinsic quiescence. The Buddha abiding in intrinsic quiescence is none other than the dharmakaya [...] This dharmakaya is the real Buddha. It is on this doctrinal foundation that the Mahaparinirvana Sutra declares: "the dharmakaya has [the attributes of] eternity (nitya), happiness (sukha), self (atman) and purity (subha) and is perpetually free from birth, old age, sickness, death and all other sufferings [...] It exists eternally without change.""[3]


References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Williams 2008, p. 157.
  2. Pye 1978, p. 50.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Xing 2005, p. 89.
  4. Fuss 1991, pp. 29-30.
  5. Leighton 2007, pp. 29-30.
  6. Buswell 2013, p. 473.
  7. 7.0 7.1 The English Buddhist Dictionary Committee 2009.
  8. Nichiren Daishonin, Rissho Ankoku Ron (Eng. On Establishing the Correct Teaching for the Peace of the Land), 1260 CE
  9. What is Pure Land Buddhism? da Sho-on Hattori, A Raft from The Other Shore Honen and the Way of Pure Land Buddhism, published by Jodo Shu Press
  10. Amida, who attained Buddhahood in the infinite past, / Full of compassion for foolish beings of the five defilements, / Took the form of Sakyamuni Buddha/ And appeared in Gaya. (Shinran, Hymnes of Pure Land, 88)
  11. http://www.jsri.jp/English/Pureland/DOCTRINE/nembutsu.htm
  12. Richard Karl Payne, Kenneth Kazuo Tanaka (Editors); 'Approaching the Land of Bliss: Religious Praxis in the Cult of Amitåabha'; Studies in East Asian Buddhism, 17 (Book 17); Univ of Hawaii Pr; 1st Edition edition (October 1, 2003); p.7


Sources

  • Buswell, Robert E., ed. (2004), Encyclopedia of Buddhism, Macmillan Reference USA, ISBN 0-02-865718-7 
  • Fuss, Michael (1991), Buddhavacana and Dei verbum : a phenomenological and theological comparison of scriptural inspiration in the Saddharmapuṇḍarīka sūtra and in the Christian tradition, Leiden; New York: E.J. Brill, ISBN 9004089918 
  • Leighton, Taigen Dan (2007). Visions of Awakening Space and Time, Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press
  • Pye, Michael (1978). Skilful Means - A concept in Mahayana Buddhism. London, UK: Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd. 2nd edition: Routledge 2003. ISBN 0-7156-1266-2.
  • The English Buddhist Dictionary Committee (2009). The Soka Gakkai Dictionary of Buddhism. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 9788120833340. Archived from the original on 2015-07-09.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  • Williams, Paul (2008), Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations, Routledge 
  • Xing, Guang (2005), The Concept of the Buddha, RoutledgeCurzon 

Further reading

This article includes content from Eternal Buddha on Wikipedia (view authors). License under CC BY-SA 3.0. Wikipedia logo