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Madhyamaka (Sanskrit: Madhyamaka, Chinese: 中觀见; pinyin: Zhōngguān Jìan') refers primarily to the later schools of Buddhism philosophy[1] founded by Nagarjuna (150 CE to 250 CE). According to Madhyamaka all phenomena (dharmas) are empty of "inherent existence,"[2] because they are dependently co-arisen. But this "emptiness" itself is also "empty": it does not have an existence on its own, nor does it refer to a transcendental reality beyond or above phenomenal reality.[3][4][5]



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