Difference between revisions of "Pratityasamutpada"

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'''Pratityasamutpada''' ([[Sanskrit]]: ''pratītyasamutpāda''; [[Pāli]]: ''paṭiccasamuppāda''), commonly translated as '''dependent origination''' or '''dependent arising''', is the principle that all things arise in dependence upon multiple causes and conditions; nothing exists as a singular, independent entity. The term is used in the Buddhist teachings in two senses:  
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'''Pratityasamutpada''' ([[Sanskrit]]: ''pratītyasamutpāda''; [[Pāli]]: ''paṭiccasamuppāda''), commonly translated as '''dependent origination''' or '''dependent arising''', is the principle that all things arise in dependence upon multiple causes and conditions; nothing exists as a singular, independent entity.  
* On a general level, it refers to one of the central concepts in the [[Buddhism|Buddhist]] tradition—that all things arise in dependence upon multiple causes and conditions.
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The term is used in the Buddhist teachings in two senses:  
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* On a general level, it refers to one of the doctrine that all things arise in dependence upon multiple causes and conditions.
 
* On a specific level, the term is used to refer to a specific application of this general principle—namely the [[twelve links of dependent origination]].
 
* On a specific level, the term is used to refer to a specific application of this general principle—namely the [[twelve links of dependent origination]].
  
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* The Dalai Lama states: "Dependent-arising is the general philosophy of all Buddhist systems even though many different interpretations are found among these systems. In Sanskrit the word for dependent-arising is ''pratityasamutpada''. The word ''pratitya'' has three different meanings–meeting, relying, and depending–but all three, in terms of their basic import, mean dependence. ''Samutpada'' means arising. Hence, the meaning of ''pratityasamutpada'' is that which arises in dependence upon conditions, in reliance upon conditions, through the force of conditions. On a subtle level, it is explained as the main reason why phenomena are empty of inherent existence."{{sfn|Dalai Lama|1992|p=35}}
 
* The Dalai Lama states: "Dependent-arising is the general philosophy of all Buddhist systems even though many different interpretations are found among these systems. In Sanskrit the word for dependent-arising is ''pratityasamutpada''. The word ''pratitya'' has three different meanings–meeting, relying, and depending–but all three, in terms of their basic import, mean dependence. ''Samutpada'' means arising. Hence, the meaning of ''pratityasamutpada'' is that which arises in dependence upon conditions, in reliance upon conditions, through the force of conditions. On a subtle level, it is explained as the main reason why phenomena are empty of inherent existence."{{sfn|Dalai Lama|1992|p=35}}
 
* Christina Feldman explains: What the pañicca-samuppàda actually describes is a vision of life or an understanding in which we see the way everything is interconnected—that there is nothing separate, nothing standing alone. Everything effects everything else. We are part of this system. We are part of this process of dependent origination—causal relationships effected by everything that happens around us and, in turn, effecting the kind of world that we all live in inwardly and outwardly.<ref group=web name=feldman1/>
 
* Christina Feldman explains: What the pañicca-samuppàda actually describes is a vision of life or an understanding in which we see the way everything is interconnected—that there is nothing separate, nothing standing alone. Everything effects everything else. We are part of this system. We are part of this process of dependent origination—causal relationships effected by everything that happens around us and, in turn, effecting the kind of world that we all live in inwardly and outwardly.<ref group=web name=feldman1/>
* Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse states: "After a long time of contemplation, [Siddhartha] came to the realization that all form, including our flesh and bones, and all our emotions and all our perceptions, are assembled—they are the product of two or more things coming together. When any two components or more come together, a new phenomenon emerges—nails and wood become a table; water and leaves become tea; fear, devotion, and a savior become God. This end product doesn’t have an existence independent of its parts. Believing it truly exists independently is the greatest deception. Meanwhile the parts have undergone a change. Just by meeting, their character has changed and, together, they have become something else—they are “compounded.” [Siddhartha] realized that this applies not only to the human experience but to all matter, the entire world, the universe—because everything is interdependent, everything is subject to change. Not one component in all creation exists in an autonomous, permanent, pure state. Not the book you are holding, not atoms, not even the gods. So as long as something exists within reach of our mind, even in our imagination, such as a man with four arms, then it depends on the existence of something else."{{sfn|Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse|2011|p=15-16}}
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* Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse states: "After a long time of contemplation, [Siddhartha] came to the realization that all form, including our flesh and bones, and all our emotions and all our perceptions, are assembled—they are the product of two or more things coming together. When any two components or more come together, a new phenomenon emerges—nails and wood become a table; water and leaves become tea; fear, devotion, and a savior become God. This end product doesn’t have an existence independent of its parts. Believing it truly exists independently is the greatest deception. Meanwhile the parts have undergone a change. Just by meeting, their character has changed and, together, they have become something else—they are “compounded.” [Siddhartha] realized that this applies not only to the human experience but to all matter, the entire world, the universe—because everything is interdependent, everything is subject to change. Not one component in all creation exists in an autonomous, permanent, pure state. Not the book you are holding, not atoms, not even the gods. So as long as something exists within reach of our mind, even in our imagination, such as a man with four arms, then it depends on the exis
* The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions states: "A key concept in Buddhism...states that all physical and mental manifestations which constitute individual appearances are interdependent and condition or affect one another, in a constant process of arising and ceasing."{{sfn|Bowker|1997}}
 
* Nan Huai-Chin states: "Buddhist ontology points out that all relative phenomena arise and disappear through processes of cause and effect: this is called "interdependent origination" (Sanskrit: ''pratityasamutpada''; in Chinese ''yuan ch'i''). Accordingly, all such phenomena are dependent on the (temporary) linking of causal factors that bring them into existence and maintain them, and thus they have no stable, absolute identities independent of the web of causation. Lacking absolute independent entities they are said to be inherently empty".{{sfn|Nan Huai-Chin|1994}}
 
* Paul Williams states: "In the ''Mahatanhasankhaya Sutta'' the Buddha [stresses] that things originate in dependence upon causal conditioning, and this emphasis on causality describes the central feature of Buddhist ontology. All elements of samsara exist in some sense or another relative to their causes and conditions.{{sfn|Williams|2002|p=64}}
 
}}{{refn|group=lower-alpha|''Pratityasamutpada'' can also be described as follows: that all phenomena are arising together in a mutually interdependent web of cause and effect. When one cause changes or disappears, the resulting object or phenomenon will also change or disappear, as will the objects or phenomena depending on the changing object or phenomenon.}} A traditional example used in Buddhist texts is of three sticks standing upright and leaning against each other and supporting each other. If one stick is taken away, the other two will fall to the ground. Thich Nhat Hanh explains:{{sfn|Thich Nhat Hanh|1999|p=221-222}}
 
: ''Pratitya samutpada'' is sometimes called the teaching of cause and effect, but that can be misleading, because we usually think of cause and effect as separate entities, with cause always preceding effect, and one cause leading to one effect. According to the teaching of Interdependent Co-Arising, cause and effect co-arise (''samutpada'') and everything is a result of multiple causes and conditions... In the sutras, this image is given: "Three cut reeds can stand only by leaning on one another. If you take one away, the other two will fall." For a table to exist, we need wood, a carpenter, time, skillfulness, and many other causes. And each of these causes needs other causes to be. The wood needs the forest, the sunshine, the rain, and so on. The carpenter needs his parents, breakfast, fresh air, and so on. And each of those things, in turn, has to be brought about by other causes and conditions. If we continue to look in this way, we'll see that nothing has been left out. Everything in the cosmos has come together to bring us this table. Looking deeply at the sunshine, the leaves of the tree, and the clouds, we can see the table. The one can be seen in the all, and the all can be seen in the one. One cause is never enough to bring about an effect. A cause must, at the same time, be an effect, and every effect must also be the cause of something else. Cause and effect inter-are. The idea of first and only cause, something that does not itself need a cause, cannot be applied.{{refn|group=lower-alpha|Thich Nhat Hanh also refers to this reality of mutual interdependence as 'Interbeing'.}}
 
 
 
===This is, because that is===
 
{{main|Idappaccayatā}}
 
 
 
A simple formulation of the principle of ''pratityasamutpada'' is translated by [[Thich Nhat Hanh]] as follows:{{sfn|Thich Nhat Hanh|1999|p=221-222}}
 
{{quote|
 
This is, because that is.<br/>
 
This is not, because that is not.<br/>
 
This ceases to be, because that ceases to be.
 
}}
 
 
 
This key formula is referred to as ''specific conditionality'' or ''this/that conditionality'' (Pali: ''idappaccayatā''; Sanskrit: ''idaṃpratyayatā''). The formula is repeated hundreds of times throughout the sutras, and there are many translations of the formula by contemporary scholars and translators.{{refn|group=lower-alpha|name=idap|A simple formulation of the principle of ''pratityasamutpada'' that is repeated hundreds of times throughout the sutras:
 
* Thich Nhat Hanh states: "The Buddha expressed interdependent Co-Arising very simply: "This is, because that is. This is not, because that is not. This comes to be, because that comes to be. This ceases to be, because that ceases to be." These sentences occur hundreds of times in both the Northern and Southern transmissions. They are the Buddhist genesis."{{sfn|Thich Nhat Hanh|1999|p=221-222}}
 
* Peter Harvey states: In its abstract form, the doctrine states: 'That being, this comes to be; from the arising of that, this arises; that being absent, this is not; from the cessation of that, this ceases.' (S.II.28) This states the principle of conditionality, that all things, mental and physical, arise and exist due to the presence of certain conditions, and cease once their conditions are removed: nothing (except ''Nibbana'') is independent.{{sfn|Harvey|1990|p=54}}
 
* Christina Feldman states: "The basic principle of dependent origination is simplicity itself. The Buddha described it by saying: 'When there is this, that is. / With the arising of this, that arises. / When this is not, neither is that. / With the cessation of this, that ceases.' When all of these cycles of feeling, thought, bodily sensation, all of these cycles of mind and body, action, and movement, are taking place upon a foundation of ignorance—that’s called samsara.<ref group=web name=feldman1/>
 
* Joseph Goldstien states: "At the heart of his teaching is the principle of dependent origination: because of this, that arises; when this ceases, that also ceases. The law of dependent origination is central to understanding not only the arising of our precious human birth, but also the unfolding process of life itself, in all its pain and beauty."{{sfn|Goldstein|2011|p=53}}
 
* Rupert Gethin: "Another succinct formula states the principle of causality (idaṃpratyayatā) as ‘this existing, that exists; this arising, that arises; this not existing, that does not exist; this ceasing, that ceases’. (Majjhima Nikāya iii. 63; Samyutta Nikāya v. 387; etc.) ...the succinct formula state[s] baldly that the secret of the universe lies in the nature of causality—the way one thing leads to another.{{sfn|Gethin|1998|p=141}} }} For example, contemporary translator Thanissaro Bikkhu provides the following translation:<ref group=web name=sn1261>Bhikkhu Thanissaro, [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn12/sn12.061.than.html Assutavā Sutta: Uninstructed (SN 12.61)], Access To Insight, accessdate=5 June 2013</ref>
 
{{quote|
 
When this is, that is.<br />
 
From the arising of this comes the arising of that.<br />
 
When this isn't, that isn't.<br />
 
From the cessation of this comes the cessation of that.
 
}}
 
 
 
Rupert Gethin explains "..the succinct formula state[s] baldly that the secret of the universe lies in the nature of causality—the way one thing leads to another."{{sfn|Gethin|1998|p=141}}
 
 
 
===Multiple causes and conditions===
 
A key aspect of the principle of ''pratityasamutpada'' is that every result is dependent upon multiple causes and conditions. Rupert Gethin explains:{{sfn|Gethin|1998|p=153}}
 
:...the Theravāda tradition records...as a fundamental axiom the principle that a single cause does not give rise to either a single result or several results; nor do several causes give rise to just one result; but rather several causes give rise to several results.{{refn|group=lower-alpha|Endnote: Visuddhimagga xvii. 105–7; Vibhaṅga-aṭṭhakathā 147–8. For the Sarvāstivādin understanding of types of condition, see Abhidhar-makośa ii. 60–73.}}{{refn|group=lower-alpha|Gethin also explains: "I said above that the formula of dependent arising is intended to reveal the actual pattern and structure of causality. Buddhist thought does not understand causality in terms similar to, say, Newtonian mechanics, where billiard balls rebound off each other in an entirely predictable manner once the relevant information is gathered."{{sfn|Gethin|1998|p=153}} }}{{refn|group=lower-alpha|See also the section [[#Karma]] in this article.}}
 
 
 
==Relation to other Buddhist concepts==
 
 
 
===The Four Noble Truths===
 
{{main|Four Noble Truths}}
 
The principle of dependent origination is closely related to the Four Noble Truths.{{refn|group=lower-alpha|The doctrine of dependent origination is closely related to the [[Four Noble Truths]], in particular, the Second Noble Truth:
 
* Peter D. Santina states: "On the basis of the Buddha’s own statements, we can see a very close relationship between the Four Noble Truths and dependent origination. What is it that the Four Noble Truths and dependent origination have in common? The principle that both have in common is the principle of causality—the law of cause and effect, of action and consequence."<ref group=web name=edu1/>
 
* Christina Feldman states: "In the Buddha’s teachings, the second noble truth is not a theory about what happens to somebody else, but is a process which is going on over and over again in our own lives—through all our days, and countless times every single day. This process in Pali is called pañicca-samuppàda, sometimes translated as "dependent origination" or "co-dependent origination" or "causal interdependence.""<ref group=web name=feldman1>Feldman, Christina. "Dependent Origination," http://www.seattleinsight.org/Portals/0/Documents/Study%20Materials/Dependent-Origin-Feldman.pdf</ref>
 
* Bhikkhu Thanissaro relates pañicca-samuppàda to the second and third noble truths; he  states: "...dependent co-arising works as an explanation both for the arising of dukkha—stress or suffering—and for the fact that dukkha can be ended through a path of practice."{{sfn|Bhikkhu Thanissaro|2008}}
 
* Rupert Gethin explains: "Dependent arising is to be understood as in certain respects an elaboration of the truth of the origin of suffering..."{{sfn|Gethin|1998|p=74}}
 
* The Dalai Lama states: "In the Buddha's root teaching on the four noble truths, there are two sets of cause and effect: one set for the afflicted class of phenomena [suffering and its causes] and another for the pure class [cessation and its causes]."{{sfn|Dalai Lama|1992|p=38}}
 
* Chogyam Trungpa states: "The four noble truths are divided into two sections. The first two truths—the truth of suffering and the origin of suffering—are studies of the samsaric version of ourselves and the reasons we arrived in certain situations or came to particular conclusions about ourselves. The second two truths—the truth of cessation and the truth of the path—are studies of how we could go beyond or overcome it. [...] Suffering is regarded as the result of samsara, and the origin of suffering is regarded as the cause of samsara. The path is regarded as the cause of nirvana, and cessation of suffering as the result.{{sfn|Chogyam Trungpa|2009|p=13-14}} }} Contemporary scholar Peter D. Santina explains:<ref group=web name=edu1/>
 
:What is it that the Four Noble Truths and dependent origination have in common? The principle that both have in common is the principle of causality—the law of cause and effect, of action and consequence. ...we have mentioned that the Four Noble Truths are divided into two groups. The first two—suffering and the causes of suffering, and the last two—the end of suffering and the path to the end of suffering. In both of these groups, it is the law of cause and effect that governs the relationship between the two. In other words, suffering is the effect of the cause of suffering; and similarly, the end of suffering is the effect of the path to the end of suffering. Here too in regard to dependent origination, the fundamental principle at work is that of cause and effect. In dependent origination, we have a more detailed description of what actually takes place in the causal process.
 
 
 
===Karma===
 
{{main|Karma in Buddhism}}
 
The principle of dependent origination underpins the concept of [[Karma in Buddhism|karma]], which is an application of this principle to individual actions and their fruition. The Dalai Lama explains the relation between dependent origination and karma as follows:{{sfn|Dalai Lama|1998|pp=74-75}}
 
:Karma is one particular instance of the natural causal laws that operate throughout the universe where, according to Buddhism, things and events come into being purely as a result of the combination of causes and conditions.
 
 
 
:Karma, then, is an instance of the general law of causality. What makes karma unique is that it involves intentional action, and therefore an agent. The natural causal processes operating in the world cannot be termed karmic where there is no agent involved. In order for a causal process to be a karmic one, it must involve an individual whose intention would lead to a particular action. It is this specific type of causal mechanism which is known as karma.
 
 
 
As in the principle of dependent origination, within the functioning of karma, every fruition is said to depend upon multiple causes and conditions. Bhikkhu Thanissaro states:
 
:...one of the many things the Buddha discovered in the course of his awakening was that causality is not linear. The experience of the present is shaped both by actions in the present and by actions in the past. Actions in the present shape both the present and the future. The results of past and present actions continually interact. Thus there is always room for new input into the system, which gives scope for free will.{{refn|group=lower-alpha|Bhikkhu Thanissaro emphasizes that causality is not a linear process.<ref group=web name=than0>Bhikkhu Thanissaro, [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/thanissaro/resonance.html Samsara Divided by Zero], Access To Insight, accessdate=July 26, 2010</ref>}}
 
 
 
===No-self (anatman)===
 
The principle of dependent origination also applies to the concept of no-self (anatman).{{refn|group=lower-alpha|Dependent origination applies to the concept of no-self:
 
* Joseph Goldstein states: "Everything arises from conditions, and in seeing this contingent arising, we see the emptiness of self in the process."{{sfn|Goldstein|2002|p=155}}
 
* Thanissaro Bhikkhu states: "...taking up the teaching of not-self, shows how dependent co-arising gives focus to this teaching in practice."<ref group=web name=than_great>Bhikkhu Thanissaro, [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/dn/dn.15.0.than.html Maha-nidana Sutta: The Great Causes Discourse], Access To Insight</ref>
 
* Lama Zopa Rinpoche states: If the I really were in a particular location in your body or in your mind, as you feel it to be, it would mean the I is truly existent.In that case there would be no way you could use the logic of dependent arising because it wouldn’t be a dependent arising. In other words, if there were an I located somewhere in the body, in the mind or in the association of both the body and mind, if the I that appears to us were true, it would mean that the I is truly existent. If the I were able to be found somewhere, it would mean that it is truly existent. If the I were truly existent there would be no way to apply the logic of dependent arising to it because it wouldn’t exist in that way.{{sfn|Lama Zopa Rinpoche|2009|loc=Kindle Locations 945-949}} }} The concept of ''no-self'' or ''anatman'' or ''emptiness of self'' is that it is not possible to identify an independent, inherently existing self; that the self only exists in dependence upon causes and conditions. This theory can be broken down as follows:{{sfn|Mattis-Namgyel|2010|p=15-19}}
 
* If you look for the self within the body, you can not find it there, since the body itself is dependent upon its parts.
 
* If you look for the self within the mind, you can not find it there, since the mind can only be said to exist in relation to external objects; therefore the mind is also dependent upon causes and conditions outside of itself.
 
* Hence, since the self can not be said to exist within the body or mind, it is said to be "empty of inherent existence".
 
 
 
===Emptiness (sunyata)===
 
In the Mahayana tradition, the principle of pratītyasamutpāda is said to complement the concept of ''emptiness'' (''sunyata''). It is said that because all things arise in dependence upon causes and conditions, they are ''empty'' of inherent existence.{{refn|group=lower-alpha|In the Mahayana tradition, the principle of pratītyasamutpāda is said to complement the concept of emptiness (sunyata):
 
* The Dalai Lama states: "...the meaning of ''pratityasamutpada'' is that which arises in dependence upon conditions, in reliance upon conditions, through the force of conditions. On a subtle level, it is explained as the main reason why phenomena are empty of inherent existence."{{sfn|Dalai Lama|1992|p=35}}
 
* Nan Huai-Chin states: "Buddhist ontology points out that all relative phenomena arise and disappear through processes of cause and effect: this is called "interdependent origination" (Sanskrit: ''pratityasamutpada''; in Chinese ''yuan ch'i''). Accordingly, all such phenomena are dependent on the (temporary) linking of causal factors that bring them into existence and maintain them, and thus they have no stable, absolute identities independent of the web of causation. Lacking absolute independent entities they are said to be inherently empty".{{sfn|Nan Huai-Chin|1994}}
 
* Jay Garfield states: "That all phenomena are dependently originated is the heart of the Buddhist ontological theory."{{sfn|Edelglass|2009|p=26}}
 
}}
 
 
 
A classic expression of this relationship was provided by the renowned Indian scholar [[Nagarjuna]] in the twenty-fourth chapter of his ''[[Mūlamadhyamakakārikā|Treatise on the Middle Way]]''; Nagarjuna stated:{{sfn|Geshe Sonam Rinchen|2006|p=21}}
 
{{quote|
 
Whatever arises dependently<br/>
 
Is explained as empty.<br/>
 
Thus dependent attribution<br/>
 
Is the middle way.
 
 
 
Since there is nothing whatever<br/>
 
That is not dependently existent,<br/>
 
For that reason there is nothing<br/>
 
Whatsoever that is not empty.
 
}}
 
Geshe Sonam Rinchen explains the above quote as follows: "Here Nagarjuna states the Madhyamika or middle way position. Everything that exists does so dependently and everything that is dependently existent necessarily lacks independent objective existence."{{sfn|Geshe Sonam Rinchen|2006|p=21}}
 
 
 
==Twelve links of dependent origination==
 
{{main|Twelve links of dependent origination}}
 
 
 
The Twelve Nidanas are a series of causal links that explain the process of samsaric rebirth and hence the arising dukkha, as well as the possibility to reverse this process, and hence liberate oneself from samsara.{{refn|group=lower-alpha|The twelve links explain the process of rebirth and the arising of dukkha.<ref group=web name=brit1>Encyclopaedia Britannica. "Buddhism (religion)," http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/474042/paticca-samuppada. Accessed 25 February 2011.</ref><ref group=web name=edu1>Peter D. Santina, Buddha Dharma Education Association. "Dependent Origination," http://www.buddhanet.net/funbud12.htm. Accessed 25 February 2011.</ref><ref group=web name=feldman2>Feldman, Christina. "Dependent Origination," http://www.dharma.org/ij/archives/1999a/christina.htm. Accessed 25 February 2011.</ref>{{sfn|Bhikkhu Thanissaro|2008}} }} Within the Theravada Buddhist tradition, the twelve nidanas are considered to be the most significant application of the principle of dependent origination.
 
 
 
The relationship between links (''nidanas'') is not considered to be a linear causal process, in which each link gives rise to the next link. Rather, each link in the process arises in dependence upon multiple causes and conditions.{{sfn|Bhikkhu Bodhi|2005|p=316}} For example, whenever there is ignorance, craving and clinging invariably follow, and craving and clinging themselves indicate ignorance.{{sfn|Bhikkhu Bodhi|2005|p=314}}
 
 
 
The thrust of the formula is such that when certain conditions are present, they give rise to subsequent conditions, which in turn give rise to other conditions and the cyclical nature of life in [[samsara]] can be seen. This is graphically illustrated in the [[bhavacakra]] (wheel of life).
 
 
 
==Understanding within the Buddhist traditions==
 
[[Image:Paticca-Samuppada.JPG|thumb|260px|A modern Theravada presentation of the Wheel of Life. The twelve links are shown in the outer rim.]]
 
===Theravāda===
 
Within the Theravada Buddhist tradition, the twelve nidanas are considered to be the most significant application of the principle of dependent origination.{{refn|group=lower-alpha|The twelve nidandas are the most significant application in the Theravada tradition:
 
* Rupert Gethin states: "But the most important statement of the Buddhist understanding of how causality operates is in terms of the twelve links (nidāna) of the chain of ‘dependent arising’ (pratītya-samutpāda/paṭicca-samuppāda)."{{sfn|Gethin|1998|p=141}} }}
 
 
 
Also in the Theravada tradition, the following key teachings on the principle of dependent origination are found in the Pali suttas:{{sfn|Gethin|1998|p=141}}
 
* [[Śāriputra]] was introduced to the teachings of the Buddha by the following verse that was recited to him by the monk Aśvajit: "Of those dharmas which arise from a cause, the Tathāgata has stated the cause, and also the cessation; such is the teaching of the Great Ascetic."
 
* ''Idappaccayatā'' (translated as ''specific conditionality'', ''this/that conditionality'', etc.) is identified as a key expression of the doctrine of ''pratītyasamutpāda''. ''Idappaccayatā'' is expressed through the following formula: ‘this existing, that exists; this arising, that arises; this not existing, that does not exist; this ceasing, that ceases’ (Majjhima Nikāya 115,<ref>[http://www.budsas.org/ebud/majjhima/115-bahudhatuka-e.htm Bahudhātukasuttaṃ], PTS: iii. 63</ref> Samyutta Nikāya 55.27,<ref>Dutiyānāthapiṇḍikasuttaṃ, PTS: v. 387</ref> etc.)
 
 
 
===Mahayana===
 
 
 
====Madhyamaka====
 
{{Main|Madhyamaka}}
 
In the Madhyamaka, to say that an object is "empty" is synonymous with saying that it is dependently originated. [[Nāgārjuna]] equates [[emptiness]] with dependent origination in [[Mūlamadhyamakakārikā]] 24:18.{{sfn|Mabja Tsondru|2011|p=67-71, 447-477}} In his analysis, any enduring essential nature (svabhāva) would prevent the process of dependent origination, would prevent any kind of origination at all, for things would simply always have been and will always continue to be, i.e. as existents (bhāva). Madhyamaka suggests that impermanent collections of causes and conditions are designated by mere conceptual labels, which also applies to the causes and conditions themselves and even the principle of causality itself since ''everything'' is dependently originated (i.e. empty).{{sfn|Williams|2000|p=142}} If unaware of this, things may seem to arise as existents, remain for a time and then subsequently perish.
 
 
 
====Hua Yen school====
 
{{Main|Huayan school}}
 
The [[Huayan school|Hua Yen]] school taught the doctrine of the mutual containment and interpenetration of all phenomena, as expressed in [[Indra's net]]. One thing contains all other existing things, and all existing things contain that one thing. This philosophy is based in the tradition of the great Madhyamaka scholar [[Nagarjuna]] and, more specifically, on the [[Avatamsaka Sutra]]. Regarded by [[D.T. Suzuki]] as the crowning achievement of Buddhist philosophy, the ''Avatamsaka Sutra'' elaborates in great detail on the principal of dependent origination. This sutra describes a cosmos of infinite realms upon realms, mutually containing one another.
 
 
 
====Tibetan Buddhism====
 
In [[Dzogchen]] tradition of [[Tibetan Buddhism]], the concept of dependent origination is considered to be complementary to the concept of emptiness. Specifically, this tradition emphasizes the indivisibility of appearance and emptiness—also known as the relative and absolute aspects of reality.{{sfn|Anyen Rinpoche|2012|pp=58-59}} In this context:
 
* Appearance (relative truth) refers to the concept that all appearances are dependently originated
 
* Emptiness (absolute or ultimate truth) refers to the concept that the ‘’nature” of all phenomena is emptiness—lacking inherent existence.
 
 
 
In [[Mipham Rinpoche]]’s ''Beacon of Certainty'', this relationship is explained using the metaphor of the reflection of the moon in water.{{sfn|Anyen Rinpoche|2012|pp=58-59}}  According to this metaphor:
 
* The ''nature'' of all phenomena is like the reflection of the moon in water—completely lacking inherent existence. However,
 
* The ''appearance'' of the moon in the water is an expression of dependent origination—the appearance is completely dependent upon causes and conditions.{{sfn|Anyen Rinpoche|2012|pp=58-59}}
 
 
 
Anyen Rinpoche explains the significance of this understanding for a Dzogchen practitioner:
 
: We gain personal experience through meditation practice and becoming accustomed to naturally seeing appearance and emptiness in union. If we develop confidence in the nature of dependent arising, this will greatly support our personal experience of actual meditation. We could say that it is through our understanding of dependent arising that appearance and emptiness become equal.{{sfn|Anyen Rinpoche|2012|p=133}}
 
 
 
One of the founders of Tibetan Buddhism, [[Padmasambhava]], emphasized his respect for this relationship as follows:
 
:One’s view should be as vast as the sky,
 
:and one’s action should be as subtle and fine as grains of flour.{{sfn|Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse|2003|p=35}}
 
 
 
==Comparative studies==
 
 
 
===Quantum mechanics===
 
The Mahayana presentation of ''pratītyasamutpāda'' (and ''shunyata'') has been compared to the scientific theory of quantum mechanics (also known as quantum physics)—the contemporary branch of physics that examines matter on atomic and subatomic levels. For example, contemporary Tibetan Buddhist teacher Mingyur Rinpoche states:{{sfn|Mingyur Rinpoche|2007|p=67}}
 
:In my conversations with modern scientists, I’ve been struck by a number of similarities between the principles of quantum mechanics and the Buddhist understanding of the relationship between emptiness and appearance. Because the words we used were different, it took me quite a while to recognize that we were talking about the same thing—phenomena unfolding moment by moment, caused and conditioned by an almost infinite number and variety of events.
 
 
 
And contemporary Western philosopher Christian Thomas Kohl states:<ref group=web>Kohl, Christian Thomas, [http://philpapers.org/rec/KOHPIE ''Pratityasamutpada in Eastern and Western Modes of Thought'']; also [http://www.undv.org/vesak2012/iabudoc/07KohlFINAL.pdf]</ref>
 
:There is a surprising parallelism between the philosophical concept of reality articulated by [[Nagarjuna]] and the physical concept of reality implied by quantum physics. For neither is there a fundamental core to reality, rather reality consists of systems of interacting objects. Such concepts of reality cannot be reconciled with the substantial, subjective, holistic or instrumentalistic concepts of reality which underlie modern modes of thought.
 
 
 
===Systems theory===
 
The doctrine of ''pratītyasamutpāda'' has been compared to modern [[systems theory]]. For example, in her text ''Mutual Causality in Buddhism and General Systems Theory'', contemporary scholar Joanna Macy states:{{sfn|Macy|1991|p=xii}}
 
: The systems view of reality as process, its perception of self-organizing patterns of physical and mental events, and the principals it discerned in the dynamics of these natural systems struck me as remarkably consonant with the Buddha's teachings. Like the doctrine of ''paticca samuppāda'', systems theory sees causality as reciprocal, arising from interweaving circuits of contingency. [...] Despite the obvious contrasts in their origins and purposes, each of them—early Buddhism and contemporary systems theory—can clarify what the other is saying.
 
 
 
===Chaos theory===
 
Bhikkhu Thanissaro relates the Buddhist concept of causality to modern deterministic [[chaos theory]]; he states:{{sfn|Bhikkhu Thanissaro|2010|p=10}}
 
:There are many parallels between Buddhist theories of causation and modern deterministic chaos theory. Examples and terminology drawn from the latter — such as feedback, scale invariance, resonance, and fluid turbulence — are very useful in explaining the former. Again, in using these parallels I am not trying to equate Buddhist teachings with chaos theory or to engage in pseudo-science. Fashions in science change so rapidly that we do the Buddha’s teachings no favor in trying to “prove” them in light of current scientific paradigms. Here I am simply pointing out similarities as a way of helping to make those teachings intelligible in modern terms. Deterministic chaos theory is the only modern body of knowledge that has worked out a vocabulary for the patterns of behavior described in Buddhist explanations of causality, and so it seems a natural source to draw on, both to describe those patterns and to point out some of their less obvious implications.
 
 
 
===Western theories of the origin of the universe===
 
{{see also|Acinteyya}}
 
The principle of ''pratītyasamutpāda'' is the basis for the Buddhist view that it is not possible to identify a beginning or origin of the world or universe. According to the Buddhist view, since all phenomena are dependent upon multiple causes and conditions, it can not be said that there was a ''first'' cause or event that sparked the creation of the universe. Thus Buddhist philosophy refutes the concepts of either a [[Creator deity|creator god]] or an initial event as posited in the "[[big bang theory]]". Dhammananda Maha Thera explains:{{sfn|Dhammananda Maha Thera|2010}}
 
:Modern science says that some millions of years ago, the newly cooled earth was lifeless and that life originated in the ocean. Buddhism never claimed that the world, sun, moon, stars, wind, water, days and nights were created by a powerful god or by a Buddha. Buddhists believe that the world was not created once upon a time, but that the world has been created millions of times every second and will continue to do so by itself and will break away by itself. According to Buddhism, world systems always appear and disappear in the universe.
 
 
 
===Western philosophy===
 
;Similarities
 
Jay Garfield points out the similarities between ''pratītyasamutpāda'' and the philosophies of Hume, Kant, and others. Garfield states:{{sfn|Garfield|1994}}
 
:The analysis of causation can often look like a highly technical aside in philosophy. It might not seem at first glance to be one of the really "big" questions, like those concerning what entities there are, what the nature of mind is, what the highest good is. By contrast, causation often appears to the outsider or to the beginner like one of those recherche corners of philosophy that one has to work one's way into. But of course even in the history of Western metaphysics and epistemology it has always been central. One has only to think of the role of a theory of causation for Hume, Kant, Schopenhauer, or Wittgenstein to see this. This study of the [[Mulamadhyamikakarika]] shows why: a clear understanding of the nature of the causal relation is the key to understanding the nature of reality itself and of our relation to it. For causation is, as Hume, Kant, and Schopenhauer as well as Nagarjuna emphasize, at the heart of our individuation of objects, of our ordering of our experience of the world, and of our understanding of our own agency in the world. Without a clear view of causation, we can have no clear view of anything.
 
 
 
;Relation to metaphysics:
 
The concept of ''pratītyasamutpāda'' has also been compared to the Western philosophy of ''[[
 

Revision as of 18:31, 10 December 2018

Translations of
Pratītyasamutpāda
English dependent origination,
dependent arising,
interdependent co-arising,
conditioned arising,
etc.
Pali paṭiccasamuppāda
(Dev: पटिच्चसमुप्पाद)
Sanskrit pratītyasamutpāda
(Dev: प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद)
Bengali prôtityôsômutpadô
Burmese ပဋိစ္စ သမုပ္ပါဒ်
IPA: [bədeiʔsa̰ θəmouʔpaʔ]
Chinese 緣起
(Pinyinyuánqǐ)
Japanese 縁起
(rōmaji: engi)
Sinhalese පටිච්චසමුප්පාද
Tibetan རྟེན་ཅིང་འབྲེལ་བར་འབྱུང་བ་
(Wylie: rten cing 'brel bar
'byung ba
THL: ten-ching drelwar
jungwa
)

Pratityasamutpada (Sanskrit: pratītyasamutpāda; Pāli: paṭiccasamuppāda), commonly translated as dependent origination or dependent arising, is the principle that all things arise in dependence upon multiple causes and conditions; nothing exists as a singular, independent entity.

The term is used in the Buddhist teachings in two senses:

  • On a general level, it refers to one of the doctrine that all things arise in dependence upon multiple causes and conditions.
  • On a specific level, the term is used to refer to a specific application of this general principle—namely the twelve links of dependent origination.

The concept of pratityasamutpada is the basis for other key concepts in Buddhism, such as the four noble truths, karma and rebirth. The general principle of pratityasamutpada is complementary to the concept of sunyata (emptiness).

Etymology

Pratityasamutpada consists of two terms:

  • pratitya: "having depended"[1]
  • samutpada: "arising",[1] "rise, production, origin"[web 1]

The term has been translated into English variously as dependent origination, dependent arising, interdependent co-arising, conditioned arising, and conditioned genesis. The term could be translated somewhat more literally as arising in dependence upon conditions.[2]

The Dalai Lama explains:

In Sanskrit the word for dependent-arising is pratityasamutpada. The word pratitya has three different meanings–meeting, relying, and depending–but all three, in terms of their basic import, mean dependence. Samutpada means arising. Hence, the meaning of pratityasamutpada is that which arises in dependence upon conditions, in reliance upon conditions, through the force of conditions.[2]

The term is used in the Buddhist tradition in a general and a specific sense, namely the general principle of interdependent causation and its application in the twelve nidanas.[lower-alpha 1] Generally speaking, in the Mahayana tradition, pratityasamutpada (Sanskrit) is used to refer to the general principle of interdependent causation, whereas in the Theravada tradition, paticcasamuppāda (Pali) is used to refer to the twelve nidanas.

The principle of interdependent causation

Overview

The general or universal definition of pratityasamutpada (or "dependent origination" or "dependent arising" or "interdependent co-arising") is that everything arises in dependence upon multiple causes and conditions; nothing exists as a singular, independent entity.{{refn|group=lower-alpha|The general meaning of pratityasamutpada is that everything arises in dependence upon multiple causes and conditions:

  • The Dalai Lama states: "Dependent-arising is the general philosophy of all Buddhist systems even though many different interpretations are found among these systems. In Sanskrit the word for dependent-arising is pratityasamutpada. The word pratitya has three different meanings–meeting, relying, and depending–but all three, in terms of their basic import, mean dependence. Samutpada means arising. Hence, the meaning of pratityasamutpada is that which arises in dependence upon conditions, in reliance upon conditions, through the force of conditions. On a subtle level, it is explained as the main reason why phenomena are empty of inherent existence."[2]
  • Christina Feldman explains: What the pañicca-samuppàda actually describes is a vision of life or an understanding in which we see the way everything is interconnected—that there is nothing separate, nothing standing alone. Everything effects everything else. We are part of this system. We are part of this process of dependent origination—causal relationships effected by everything that happens around us and, in turn, effecting the kind of world that we all live in inwardly and outwardly.[web 3]
  • Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse states: "After a long time of contemplation, [Siddhartha] came to the realization that all form, including our flesh and bones, and all our emotions and all our perceptions, are assembled—they are the product of two or more things coming together. When any two components or more come together, a new phenomenon emerges—nails and wood become a table; water and leaves become tea; fear, devotion, and a savior become God. This end product doesn’t have an existence independent of its parts. Believing it truly exists independently is the greatest deception. Meanwhile the parts have undergone a change. Just by meeting, their character has changed and, together, they have become something else—they are “compounded.” [Siddhartha] realized that this applies not only to the human experience but to all matter, the entire world, the universe—because everything is interdependent, everything is subject to change. Not one component in all creation exists in an autonomous, permanent, pure state. Not the book you are holding, not atoms, not even the gods. So as long as something exists within reach of our mind, even in our imagination, such as a man with four arms, then it depends on the exis


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