Difference between revisions of "Samadhi"

From Encyclopedia of Buddhism
Jump to: navigation, search
(Samma samādhi (right concentration))
 
(9 intermediate revisions by 2 users not shown)
Line 6: Line 6:
  
 
==Samma samādhi (right concentration)==
 
==Samma samādhi (right concentration)==
{{Main|Noble Eightfold Path#Right concentration}}
+
{{Main|Noble Eightfold Path#Right Concentration (Samma Samadhi)}}
  
The Buddha identified [[Noble Eightfold Path#Right concentration|right concentration]] (''samma samādhi'') as the eight element in the [[Noble Eightfold Path]].
+
The Buddha identified ''right concentration'' (''samma samādhi'') as the eight element in the [[Noble Eightfold Path]].
  
 
In this context, ''samādhi'' refers here to the [[Dhyana|jhanas]], levels of gradual deepening of meditation.
 
In this context, ''samādhi'' refers here to the [[Dhyana|jhanas]], levels of gradual deepening of meditation.
Line 54: Line 54:
  
 
===Printed sources===
 
===Printed sources===
{{refbegin|40em}}
+
{{refbegin}}
* {{Citation | last =Bronkhorst | first =Johannes | authorlink = Johannes Bronkhorst | year =1993 | title =The Two Traditions Of Meditation In Ancient India | publisher =Motilal Banarsidass Publ.}}
 
* {{Citation | last =Bucknell | first =Rod | year =1984 | title =The Buddhist to Liberation: An Analysis of the Listing of Stages | journal =The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, Volume 7, 1984, Number 2 | url =https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/jiabs/article/viewFile/8631/2538}}
 
 
* {{Citation | last1 =Buddhaghosa | last2 =Bhikkhu Nanamoli | year =1999 | title =The Path of Purification: Visuddhimagga | publisher =Buddhist Publication Society | isbn =1-928706-00-2}}
 
* {{Citation | last1 =Buddhaghosa | last2 =Bhikkhu Nanamoli | year =1999 | title =The Path of Purification: Visuddhimagga | publisher =Buddhist Publication Society | isbn =1-928706-00-2}}
* {{Citation | last =Crangle | first =Eddie | year =1984 | chapter =A Comparison of Hindu and Buddhist Techniques of Attaining Samādhi | editor-last1 =Hutch | editor-first1 =R.A. | editor-last2 =Fenner | editor-first2 =P.G. | title =Under The Shade of the Coolibah Tree: Australian Studies in Consciousness | publisher =University Press of America | url =http://www.ahandfulofleaves.org/documents/Articles/A%20Comparison%20of%20Hindu%20and%20Buddhist%20Techniques%20of%20Attaining%20Samadhi_Crangle_1984.pdf}}
+
 
* {{Citation | last =Crangle | first =Edward Fitzpatrick | year =1994 | title =The Origin and Development of Early Indian Contemplative Practices | publisher =Harrassowitz Verlag}}
 
 
* {{Citation | last =Cousins | first =L. S. | year =1996 | chapter =The origins of insight meditation | editor-last =Skorupski | editor-first =T. | title =The Buddhist Forum IV, seminar papers 1994–1996 (pp. 35–58) | place =London, UK | publisher = School of Oriental and African Studies | url =http://www.shin-ibs.edu/documents/bForum/v4/03Cousins.pdf}}
 
* {{Citation | last =Cousins | first =L. S. | year =1996 | chapter =The origins of insight meditation | editor-last =Skorupski | editor-first =T. | title =The Buddhist Forum IV, seminar papers 1994–1996 (pp. 35–58) | place =London, UK | publisher = School of Oriental and African Studies | url =http://www.shin-ibs.edu/documents/bForum/v4/03Cousins.pdf}}
* {{Citation | last1 =Diener | first1 =Michael S. | last2 =Erhard | first2 =Franz-Karl | last3 =Fischer-Schreiber | first3 =Ingrid | year =1991 | title =The Shambhala Dictionary of Buddhism and Zen | publisher =Shambhala | isbn =0-87773-520-4}}
+
 
* {{Citation | last =Farquhar | first =John Nicol | year =1920 | title =An outline of the religious literature of India | publisher =Oxford University Press}} 
 
* {{Citation | last =Forman | first =Robert K.C. | year =1999 | title =Mysticism, Mind, Consciousness | publisher =SUNY Press}}
 
 
* {{Citation | last =Gombrich | first =Richard F. | year =1997 | title =How Buddhism Began | publisher =Munshiram Manoharlal}}
 
* {{Citation | last =Gombrich | first =Richard F. | year =1997 | title =How Buddhism Began | publisher =Munshiram Manoharlal}}
 
* {{Citation | last1 =Gomez | first1 =Luis O. | last2 =Silk | first2 =Jonathan A. | year =1989 | title =Studies in the Literature of the Great Vehicle: Three Mahayana Buddhist Texts | publisher = Ann Arbor}}
 
* {{Citation | last1 =Gomez | first1 =Luis O. | last2 =Silk | first2 =Jonathan A. | year =1989 | title =Studies in the Literature of the Great Vehicle: Three Mahayana Buddhist Texts | publisher = Ann Arbor}}
* {{Citation | last =Hui-Neng | others =A.F.Price and Wong Mou-Lam | date =n.d. | title =On the High Seat of "The Treasure of the Law" The Sutra of the 6th Patriarch | url =http://www.katinkahesselink.net/tibet/hui_neng.html }}{{dead link|date=December 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}
+
 
 
* {{Citation | last =Hui-Neng | others =T.Cleary | date=n.d. | title =The Sutra of Hui-Neng | url =http://terebess.hu/zen/HuinengCleary.pdf}}
 
* {{Citation | last =Hui-Neng | others =T.Cleary | date=n.d. | title =The Sutra of Hui-Neng | url =http://terebess.hu/zen/HuinengCleary.pdf}}
* {{Citation | last =Jianxin Li | date =n.d. | title =A Comparative Study between Yoga and Indian Buddhism | publisher =asianscholarship.org | url =http://www.asianscholarship.org/asf/AnnualFellows/July8_9/Li%20Jianxin,%20A%20Comparative%20Study%20between%20Yoga%20and%20Indian%20Buddhism.doc | deadurl =yes | archiveurl =https://web.archive.org/web/20160304135225/http://www.asianscholarship.org/asf/AnnualFellows/July8_9/Li%20Jianxin,%20A%20Comparative%20Study%20between%20Yoga%20and%20Indian%20Buddhism.doc | archivedate =2016-03-04 | df = }}
 
* {{Citation | last1 =Jones | first1 =Constance | last2 =Ryan | first2 =James D. | year =2006 | title =Encyclopedia of Hinduism | publisher =Infobase Publishing}}
 
* {{Citation | last =Kalupahana | first =David J. | year =1994 | title =A history of Buddhist philosophy | place =Delhi | publisher =Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited}}
 
* {{Citation | last =Maehle | first =Gregor | year =2007 | title =Ashtanga Yoga: Practice and Philosophy | publisher =New World Library}}
 
 
* {{Citation | last =McRae | first =John | author-link = | year =2003 | title =Seeing Through Zen. Encounter, Transformation, and Genealogy in Chinese Chan Buddhism | place = | publisher =The University Press Group Ltd | ISBN =9780520237988}}
 
* {{Citation | last =McRae | first =John | author-link = | year =2003 | title =Seeing Through Zen. Encounter, Transformation, and Genealogy in Chinese Chan Buddhism | place = | publisher =The University Press Group Ltd | ISBN =9780520237988}}
* {{Citation | last =Pradhan | first =Basant | year =2015 | title =Yoga and Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy | publisher =Springer}}
+
 
* {{Citation | last =Sarbacker | first =Stuart Ray | year =2012 | title =Samadhi: The Numinous and Cessative in Indo-Tibetan Yoga | publisher =SUNY Press | url =http://www.sunypress.edu/p-4162-samadhi.aspx}}
 
* {{Citation | last =Schmithausen | first =Lambert | year =1981 | title =On some Aspects of Descriptions or Theories of 'Liberating Insight' and 'Enlightenment' in Early Buddhism". In: Studien zum Jainismus und Buddhismus (Gedenkschrift für Ludwig Alsdorf), hrsg. von Klaus Bruhn und Albrecht Wezler, Wiesbaden 1981, 199-250}}
 
* {{Citation | last =Shankman | first =Richard  | year =2008 | title =The Experience of Samadhi - an in depth Exploration of Buddhist Meditation | publisher =Shambala publications}}
 
 
* {{Citation | last =Skilton | first =Andrew | title =State or Statement?: Samādhi in Some Early Mahāyāna Sūtras | journal =The Eastern Buddhist |volume=34 |issue=2 |year=2002 | url =http://web.otani.ac.jp/EBS/index_new2.html}}
 
* {{Citation | last =Skilton | first =Andrew | title =State or Statement?: Samādhi in Some Early Mahāyāna Sūtras | journal =The Eastern Buddhist |volume=34 |issue=2 |year=2002 | url =http://web.otani.ac.jp/EBS/index_new2.html}}
* {{Citation | last =Sutcliffe | first =Steven  | year =2004 | title =Religion: Empirical Studies | publisher =Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.}}
+
 
* {{Citation | last =Taimni | first =I.K. | year =1961 | title =The Science of Yoga: The Yoga-Sutras of Patanjali in Sanskrit | publisher =Nesma Books India | isbn =978-81-7059-211-2 | url =http://www.yogastudies.org/wp-content/uploads/Science_of_Yoga-Taimni.pdf}}
 
 
* {{Citation | last =Thurman | first =Robert | year =1984 | title =The Central Philosophy of Tibet | publisher =Princeton University Press}}
 
* {{Citation | last =Thurman | first =Robert | year =1984 | title =The Central Philosophy of Tibet | publisher =Princeton University Press}}
* {{Citation | last =Vetter | first =Tilmann | year =1988 | title =The Ideas and Meditative Practices of Early Buddhism | publisher =BRILL}}
+
 
* {{Citation | last =Werner | first =Karel | year =1994 | title =The Yogi and the Mystic | publisher =Routledge}}
 
* {{Citation | last =Whicher | first =Ian | year =1998 | title =The Integrity of the Yoga Darsana: A Reconsideration of Classical Yoga | publisher =SUNY Press}}
 
* {{Citation | last =White | first =David Gordon | year =2014 | title =The Yoga Sutra of Patanjali: A Biography | publisher =Princeton University Press}}
 
* {{Citation | last =Wijebandara | first =Chandima | year =1993 | title =Early Buddhism, Its Religious and Intellectual Milieu | publisher =Postgraduate Institute of Pali and Buddhist Studies, University of Kelaniya}}
 
 
* {{Citation | last =Williams | first =Paul | year =2000 | title =Buddhist Thought. A complete introduction to the Indian tradition | publisher =Routledge}}
 
* {{Citation | last =Williams | first =Paul | year =2000 | title =Buddhist Thought. A complete introduction to the Indian tradition | publisher =Routledge}}
 
* {{Citation | last =Williams | first =Paul  | year =2008 | title =Mahāyāna Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations | publisher =Routledge}}
 
* {{Citation | last =Williams | first =Paul  | year =2008 | title =Mahāyāna Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations | publisher =Routledge}}
* {{Citation |last=Woods|first=James Haughton, trans.|title=The Yoga System of Patanjali with commentary Yogabhashya attributed to Veda Vyasa and Tattva Vaicharadi by Vacaspati Misra|year=1914|publisher=Cambridge: Harvard University Press|url=https://archive.org/details/yogasystempataj00vcgoog}}{{Page needed|date=March 2015}}
+
 
* {{Citation | last =Wynne | first =Alexander | year =2007 | title =The Origin of Buddhist Meditation | publisher = Routledge | url =http://www.e-reading.link/bookreader.php/134839/Wynne_-_The_Origin_of_Buddhist_Meditation.pdf}}
 
 
{{refend}}
 
{{refend}}
  
Line 96: Line 78:
  
 
==Further reading==
 
==Further reading==
'''General'''
 
* {{Citation | last =Crangle | first =Edward Fitzpatrick | year =1994 | title =The Origin and Development of early Indian Contemplative Practices | publisher =Harrasowitz Verlag}}
 
'''Buddhism'''
 
 
* {{Citation | last =Vetter | first =Tilmann | year =1988 | title =The Ideas and Meditative Practices of Early Buddhism | publisher =BRILL}}
 
* {{Citation | last =Vetter | first =Tilmann | year =1988 | title =The Ideas and Meditative Practices of Early Buddhism | publisher =BRILL}}
 
* {{Citation | last =Bronkhorst | first =Johannes | year =1993 | title =The Two Traditions Of Meditation In Ancient India | publisher =Motilal Banarsidass Publ.}}
 
* {{Citation | last =Bronkhorst | first =Johannes | year =1993 | title =The Two Traditions Of Meditation In Ancient India | publisher =Motilal Banarsidass Publ.}}
 
* {{Citation | last =Shankman | first =Richard | year =2008 | title =The Experience of Samadhi. An In-depth Exploration of Buddhist Meditation | publisher =Shambhala}}
 
* {{Citation | last =Shankman | first =Richard | year =2008 | title =The Experience of Samadhi. An In-depth Exploration of Buddhist Meditation | publisher =Shambhala}}
'''Hinduism'''
 
* {{Citation | last =White | first =David Gordon | year =2014 | title =The Yoga Sutra of Patanjali: A Biography | publisher =Princeton University Press}}
 
* {{Citation | last =Maehle | first =Gregor | year =2007 | title =Ashtanga Yoga: Practice and Philosophy | publisher =New World Library}}
 
  
 
== External links ==
 
== External links ==
<!--==========================({{NoMoreLinks}})============================
 
    | PLEASE BE CAUTIOUS IN ADDING MORE LINKS TO THIS ARTICLE. WIKIPEDIA  |
 
    | IS NOT A COLLECTION OF LINKS NOR SHOULD IT BE USED FOR ADVERTISING. |
 
    |                                                                    |
 
    |          Excessive or inappropriate links WILL BE DELETED.        |
 
    | See [[Wikipedia:External links]] & [[Wikipedia:Spam]] for details.  |
 
    |                                                                    |
 
    | If there are already plentiful links, please propose additions or  |
 
    | replacements on this article's discussion page, or submit your link |
 
    | to the relevant category at the Open Directory Project (dmoz.org)  |
 
    | and link back to that category using the {{dmoz}} template.        |
 
    =========================({{NoMoreLinks}})=============================-->
 
 
{{wiktionary}}
 
{{wiktionary}}
; Advaita Hinduism
 
* [http://buddhism.lib.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-PHIL/comans.htm The question of the importance of Samadhi in modern and classical Advaita Vedanta], Michael Comans (1993)
 
 
 
; Theravada Buddhism
 
; Theravada Buddhism
 
* [https://www.wisdomlib.org/hinduism/book/a-history-of-indian-philosophy-volume-1/d/doc209748.html {{IAST|Sīla}} and {{IAST|Samādhi}}], Surendranath Dasgupta, 1940
 
* [https://www.wisdomlib.org/hinduism/book/a-history-of-indian-philosophy-volume-1/d/doc209748.html {{IAST|Sīla}} and {{IAST|Samādhi}}], Surendranath Dasgupta, 1940
Line 133: Line 94:
 
*[http://www.dhammatalks.net/Books3/Lama_Gelek_Rinpoche_Developing_Samadhi.htm Developing Samadhi - by Lama Gelek Rinpoche]
 
*[http://www.dhammatalks.net/Books3/Lama_Gelek_Rinpoche_Developing_Samadhi.htm Developing Samadhi - by Lama Gelek Rinpoche]
  
 
+
[[Category:Meditation]]
[[Category:Buddhist terminology]]
 
[[Category:Buddhist meditation]]
 
  
  
{{En-WP-Attrib}}
+
{{WP content}}

Latest revision as of 22:24, 4 August 2019

This article needs attention.
Review-icon.png


Samadhi (Skt. samādhi) is often translated as meditative absorption or concentration.

The term samadhi derives from the root sam-a-dha, which means 'to collect' or 'bring together', and thus it is often translated as 'concentration'.

Samma samādhi (right concentration)

The Buddha identified right concentration (samma samādhi) as the eight element in the Noble Eightfold Path.

In this context, samādhi refers here to the jhanas, levels of gradual deepening of meditation.

Within Buddhist traditions

Theravada

In the early Buddhist texts, samadhi is also associated with the term samatha (calm abiding). In the suttas, samadhi is defined as one-pointedness of mind (Cittass'ekaggatā).[1]

Buddhagosa defines samadhi as "the centering of consciousness and consciousness concomitants evenly and rightly on a single object...the state in virtue of which consciousness and its concomitants remain evenly and rightly on a single object, undistracted and unscattered" (Vism.84-85; PP.85).

The Theravada Pali texts mention four kinds of samadhi:

  • Momentary concentration (khanikasamadhi): A mental stabilization which arises during vipassana.
  • Preliminary concentration (parikammasamadhi): Arises out of the meditator's initial attempts to focus on a meditation object.
  • Access concentration (upacarasamadhi): Arises when the five hindrances are dispelled, when jhana is present, and with the appearance the 'counterpart sign' (patibhaganimitta).
  • Absorption concentration (appanasamadhi): The total immersion of the mind on its meditation of object and stabilization of all four jhanas.

Mahayana

Bodhisattva seated in meditation. Afghanistan, 2nd century CE

Indian Mahayana

The earliest extant Indian Mahayana texts emphasize ascetic practices and forest dwelling, and absorption in states of meditative oneness. These practices seem to have occupied a central place in early Mahayana, also because they "may have given access to fresh revelations and inspiration."[2]

In the Indian Mahayana traditions the term is also to refer to forms of "samadhi" other than dhyana. Section 21 of the Mahavyutpatti records even 118 samadhi.[3] The Samadhiraja Sutra for example has as its main theme a samādhi called 'the samadhi that is manifested as the sameness of the essential nature of all dharmas' (sarva-dharma-svabhavā-samatā-vipañcita-samādhi).[4][note 1]

Zen

A traditional Chinese Chán Buddhist master in Taiwan, sitting in meditation

Indian dhyana was translated as chán in Chinese, and zen in Japanese. Ideologically the Zen-tradition emphasizes prajna and sudden insight, but in the actual practice prajna and samādhi, or sudden insight and gradual cultivation, are paired to each other.[5][6] Especially some lineages in the Rinzai school of Zen stress sudden insight, while the Sōtō school of Zen lays more emphasis on shikantaza, training awareness of the stream of thoughts, allowing them to arise and pass away without interference.

See also

Notes

  1. Gomez & Silk: "This samadhi is at the same time the cognitive experience of emptiness, the attainment of the attributes of buddhahood, and the performance of a variety of practices or daily activities of a bodhisattva—including service and adoration at the feet of all buddhas. The word samadhi is also used to mean the sūtra itself. Consequently, we can speak of an equation, sūtra = samādhi = śūnyatā, underlying the text. In this sense the title Samadhiraja expresses accurately the content of the sūtra."[4]


References

  1. Henepola Gunaratana, The Jhanas in Theravada Buddhist Meditation © 1995
  2. Williams 2008, p. 30.
  3. Skilton 2002, p. 56.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Gomez & Silk 1989, p. 15-16.
  5. McRae 2003.
  6. Hui-Neng & Cleary 1998.


Sources

Printed sources

  • Buddhaghosa; Bhikkhu Nanamoli (1999), The Path of Purification: Visuddhimagga, Buddhist Publication Society, ISBN 1-928706-00-2 
  • Gombrich, Richard F. (1997), How Buddhism Began, Munshiram Manoharlal 
  • Gomez, Luis O.; Silk, Jonathan A. (1989), Studies in the Literature of the Great Vehicle: Three Mahayana Buddhist Texts, Ann Arbor 
  • Hui-Neng (n.d.), The Sutra of Hui-Neng (PDF), T.Cleary 
  • McRae, John (2003), Seeing Through Zen. Encounter, Transformation, and Genealogy in Chinese Chan Buddhism, The University Press Group Ltd, ISBN 9780520237988 
  • Thurman, Robert (1984), The Central Philosophy of Tibet, Princeton University Press 
  • Williams, Paul (2000), Buddhist Thought. A complete introduction to the Indian tradition, Routledge 
  • Williams, Paul (2008), Mahāyāna Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations, Routledge 

Web sources


Further reading

  • Vetter, Tilmann (1988), The Ideas and Meditative Practices of Early Buddhism, BRILL 
  • Bronkhorst, Johannes (1993), The Two Traditions Of Meditation In Ancient India, Motilal Banarsidass Publ. 
  • Shankman, Richard (2008), The Experience of Samadhi. An In-depth Exploration of Buddhist Meditation, Shambhala 

External links

Theravada Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism


This article includes content from Samadhi on Wikipedia (view authors). License under CC BY-SA 3.0. Wikipedia logo