Quality rating: okay for now, can be better (2.8/5)

Six Yogas of Naropa

From Encyclopedia of Buddhism
(Redirected from Ösel (yoga))
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Six Yogas of Nāropa (T. na ro chos drug ན་རོ་ཆོས་དྲུག), also called the Six Dharmas of Naropa, are a set of tantric practices in Tibetan Buddhism attributed to the the Indian mahasiddha Nāropa and passed on to the Tibetan translator-yogi Marpa Lotsawa.

The six yogas form the basis of the inner yoga practices of Mahamudra, as practised in the Kagyü and Gelug schools.[1]

The six practices

The six yogas are:[1][2]

  • inner heat (tummo; T. gtum mo གཏུམ་མོ་; Skt. caṇḍālī) – entails the manipulation of the subtle energy of the body, which produces states of bliss and clarity, as well as physical warmth
  • illusory body (gyulü; T sgyu lus སྒྱུ་ལུས; Skt. māyākāyā) – entails realizing the illusory nature of ordinary experience
  • clear light (ösel; T od gsal འོད་གསལ་; Skt. prabhasvara) – entails recognizing the luminous aspect of mind
  • dream (milam; T. rmi lam རྨི་ལམ་; Skt: svapna[-darśana]) – developing conscious awareness in the dream state
  • transference (phowa; T. pho ba འཕོ་བ་; Skt: saṃkrānti) – directing transference of consciousness at the time of death, for either oneself or another
  • intermediate state (bardo; T. bar do བར་དོ་; Skt: antarābhava) – entails maintaining awareness during the intermediate state (bardo) between the death of one lifetime and rebirth into the next lifetime.

Related practices

The "six yogas of Niguma" are almost identical to the six yogas of Nāropa. These practices are attributed to Niguma, who was closely associated with Nāropa. Niguma transmitted her teachings to the yogini Sukhasiddhī and then to Khyungpu Neldjor, the founder of the Shangpa Kagyu lineage.

The 2nd Dalai Lama compiled a work on these yogas.[3]


  1. 1.0 1.1 RW icon height 18px.png Six Yogas of Naropa
  2. Buswell & Lopez 2014, s.v. Nā ro chos drug.
  3. 2nd Dalai Lama. Tantric Yogas of Sister Niguma, Snow Lion Publications, 1st ed. U. edition (May 1985), ISBN 0-937938-28-9 (10), ISBN 978-0-937938-28-7 (13)


Further reading

  • Garma C.C. Chang, The Six Yogas of Naropa, Snow Lion, 1986
  • Kragh, Ulrich Timme (2015) Tibetan Yoga and Mysticism A Textual Study of the Yogas of Naropa and Mahamudra Meditation in the Medieval Tradition of Dags po. Tokyo: International Institute for Buddhist Studies (Studia Philologica Buddhica). ISBN 4-90626-772-6
  • Mullin, Glenn H. (translator), The Practice of the Six Yogas of Naropa, Snow Lion, 2006, ISBN 978-1559392563
  • Mullin, Glenn H.; Tsong-Kha-Pa, (2005) The Six Yogas Of Naropa, Tsongkhapa's Commentary Entitled A Book Of Three Inspirations A Treatise on the Stages Of Training in the Profound Path Of Naro's Six Dharmas, Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-234-7
  • Mullin, Glenn H. (1997) Readings on the Six Yogas of Naropa, Snow Lion Publications. ISBN 1-55939-074-3
  • Traleg Kyabgon (2020), Vajrayana: An Essential Guide to Practice, Shogam Publications , Chapter 10: Overview of the Six Yogas of Naropa
  • Roberts, Peter Alan (2011), Mahamudra and Related Instructions, Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications 

External links