|English||Verses on the Treasury of Abhidharma|
(chos mngon pa'i mdzod)
The Abhidharma-kosha or Treasury of Abhidharma refers to key texts on the Abhidharma written by the Indian scholar Vasubandhu in the 4th or 5th century. These texts were widely respected and used by schools of Buddhism in India, Tibet and East Asia.
Vasubandu composed both a root text and an auto-commentary:
- The root text is called Abhidharma-kośa-kārikā (Verses on the Treasury of Abhidharma)
- The commentary is called ''Abhidharma-kośa-bhāsya (Auto-commentary on the Treasury of Abhidharma)
In the root text (Abhidharma-kośa-kārikā), Vasubandhu summarizes the Sarvāstivādin tenets in eight chapters with a total of around 600 verses.
In the commentary (Abhidharma-kośa-bhāsya), Vasubandhu critiques the interpretations of the Sarvāstivādins, Vaibhāṣikas and others of the tenets he presented in his previous work from a Sautrāntika perspective.
The commentary includes an additional chapter in prose refuting the idea of the "person" (pudgala) favoured by some Buddhists of the Pudgalavada school. However, later Sarvāstivādin master Samghabhadra considered that he misrepresented their school in the process, and at this point designated Vasubandhu as a Sautrāntika (upholder of the sutras) rather than as an upholder of the Abhidharma.
The chapter titles (for both the root text and the auto-comentary) are:
A ninth chapter is included in the auto-commentary only:
- 9: Refutation of the Pudgala
Chapter four of the Kośa is devoted to a study of karma, and chapters two and five contain formulation as to the mechanism of fruition and retribution. This became the main source of understanding of the perspective of early Buddhism for later Mahāyāna philosophers.
Vasubhandu elaborates on the causes[note 1] and conditions[note 2] involved in the production of results,[note 3] karma being one source of causes and results, the "ripening cause" and "ripened result."[web 1] Generally speaking, the conditions can be thought of as auxiliary causes. Vasubhandhu draws from the earlier Sarvāstivādin Abhidharma treatises to establish an elaborate Buddhist etiology with the following primary components:
- Acting causes[note 4] – all phenomena, other than the result itself, which do not impede the production of the result. This includes (a) potent acting causes, such as a seed for a sprout, and (b) impotent acting causes, such as the space that allows a sprout to grow and the mother or the clothes of the farmer who planted the seed.
- Simultaneously arising causes[note 5] – causes that arise simultaneously with their results. This would include, for instance, characteristics together with whatever it is that possesses the characteristics.
- Congruent causes[note 6] – a subcategory of simultaneously arising causes, it includes causes share the same focal object, mental aspect, cognitive sensor, time, and slant with their causes—primarily referring to the primary consciousness and its congruent mental factors.
- Equal status cause[note 7] – causes for which the results are later moments in the same category of phenomena. For example, one moment of patience can be considered the cause of the next moment of patience.
- Driving causes[note 8] – disturbing emotions and attitudes that generate other subsequent disturbing emotions and attitudes in the same plane of existence, though the two need not be of the same ethical status.
- 'Ripening cause[note 9] - the karmic cause or efficacy.
- Causal conditions[note 10] - corresponds to five of the six causes, excepting the kāraṇahetu, which corresponds to the three conditions below
- Immediately preceding conditions[note 11] - a consciousness which precedes a sense or mental consciousness without any intervening consciousness and which produces the subsequent consciousness into an experience-ready entity
- Focal condition[note 12] - or "object condition" - an object which directly generates the consciousness apprehending it into having its aspect, e.g. the object blue causes an eye consciousness to be generated into having the aspect of blue
- Dominating condition[note 13]
Five Types of Results:
- Ripened results[note 14] - karmic results.
- Results that correspond to their cause[note 15] - causally concordant effects
- Dominating results[note 16] - the result of predominance. All conditioned dharmas are the adhipatiphala of other conditioned dharmas.
- Man-made results[note 17] - a result due to the activity of another dharma
- Results that are states of being parted[note 18] - not actually a result at all, but refers to the cessation that arises from insight.
Seventy-five dharmas of the Abhidharma-kosha
- the five sense organs (indriya),
- the five sense objects,
- nonmanifest materiality (or "imperceptible forms") (avijnapti-rupa),
- mind (citta),
- forty-six concomittant mental factors (caitta),
- fourteen non-concurrent formations (aka "conditioned forces dissociated from thought" or "elements neither substantial forms nor mental fuctions") (citta-viprayukta-samskara), and
- three unconditioned factors (or "non-created elements") (asamskrta-dharma)[note 19]
The original texts were written in Sanskrit by Vasubandhu.
Translations of the Abhidharma-kosha were made into Chinese by Paramārtha (564-567) and by Xuanzang (651-654). Other translations and commentaries exist in Tibetan, Chinese, Classical Mongolian and Old Uyghur; modern translations have been made into English, French and Russian.
English translations include:
- Shogaito, Masahiro (2014). The Uighur Abhidharmakosabhasya: Preserved at the Museum of Ethnography in Stockholm (Turcologica, 99). Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-10204-9.
- Vasubandhu; Lodrö Sangpo (2012). Abhidharmakosa-Bhasya of Vasubandhu: The Treasury of the Abhidharma and Its Commentary (4 vols). Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (Pvt. Limited). ISBN 978-8120836075. (Translated into English from the French translation of Louis de La Vallé Poussin, L'Abhidharmakośa de Vasubandhu, Institut belge des hates études chinoises, Bruxelles, 1971)
There are many commentaries written on this text, including an autocommentary by Master Vasubandhu entitled Abhidharmakoshabhasya. Vasubandhu's student Sthiramati wrote the Tattvartha-tika (6th c. CE). The Nalanda scholar Yasomitra (6th c. CE), also wrote a sub-commentary on the Abhidharmakoshabhasya, the Sputarth-abhidharmakosa-vyakhya.
Other scholars wrote commentaries on the Kosa to defend the Sarvastivadin tenets that Vasubandhu refutes in the text, these include the Nyayanusara (“In Accordance with the Truth”, by Samghabhadra, 5th c) and the Abhidharma-dipa (“Lamp of Abhidharma”, anonymous).
Dignaga's commentary, the Abhidharmakosa Vrtti Marmadipa also includes many sutra quotations.
Śamathadeva’s Abhidharmakośopāyikā-ṭīkā, (The Essential Companion to the ‘Treasury of the Abhidharma, Tib. Chos mngon paʼi mdzod kyi ʼgrel bshad nye bar mkho ba zhes bya ba, Derge no. 4094 / Peking no. 5595), is a handbook of the Abhidarmakosa that quotes passages from the Mūlasarvāstivāda Tripitaka.
The First Dalai Lama, Gyalwa Gendun Drup (1391-1474) composed a commentary titled Illumination of the Path to Freedom.
Mikyö Dorje, 8th Karmapa Lama (1507-1554) also wrote a two volume commentary on this text.
- S. hetu, Tib. rgyu
- S. pratyaya, Tib. rkyen, Pāli: paccaya
- S. vipākaphalam, Tib. rnam-smin-gyi 'bras-bu
- S. kāraṇahetu, T. byed-rgyu
- S. sahabhuhetu, T. lhan-cig 'byung-ba'i rgyu
- Skt. saṃmprayuktahetu, T. mtshungs-ldan-gyi rgyu
- S. sabhagahetu, T. skal-mnyam-gyi rgyu
- S. sarvatragohetu, T. kun groi rgyu
- Skt. vipākahetu, T. rnam-smin-gyi rgyu
- S. hetupratyaya, T. rgyu-rkyen
- S. samanantarapratyaya, T. dema thag rkyen
- S. alambanapratyaya, T. dmigs-rkyen
- S. adhipatipratyaya, T. bdag-rkyen
- S. vipakaphalam, T. rnam smin gyi 'bras-bu
- S. niṣyandaphalam, T. rgyu-mthun gyi 'bras-bu
- S. adhipatiphalam, bdag poi bras bu
- S. puruṣakāraphalam, T. skyes bu byed-pa'i 'bras-bu
- S. visamyogaphalam, T. bral 'bras
- Primary translations are from Buswell. Translations in quotes are from Steven Goodman.
- Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abhidharmakosa". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. p. 31. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
- Gold, Jonathan C., "Vasubandhu", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2015 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2015/entries/vasubandhu/>.
- Lamotte 2001, p. 18.
- Lamotte 2001.
- Ronkin 2005, p. 25.
- A Study of Dependent Origination: Vasubandhu, Buddhaghosa, and the Interpretation of Pratīyasamutpāda. by Susan C. Stalker Ph.D. thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 1987 pg. pg 25
- Buswell & Lopez 2014, Abhidharma-kosha
- Buswell & Lopez 2014, Abhidharma-kosha
- Steven Goodman, Frogs in the Custard, ZAM (out of print)
- Lamotte, Etienne (2001), Karmasiddhi Prakarana: The Treatise on Action by Vasubandhu, English translation by Leo M. Pruden, Asian Humanities Press
- Ronkin, Noa (2005), Early Buddhist Metaphysics: the Making of a Philosophical Tradition, Routledge, ISBN 0-203-53706-8
- Vallée Poussin, Louis de la, trad. (1923-1931). L’Abhidharmakosa de Vasubandhu, Paris: Paul Geuthner, Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3, Vol. 4, Vol. 5, Vol. 6.
- Pruden, Leo M. (1991), Abhidharmakosabhasyam, translated from the French translation by Louis de la Vallée Puossin, Asian Humanities Press, Berkeley.
- Treasury of Abhidharma
- Multilingual edition of the Abhidharmakośa in the Bibliotheca Polyglotta, Web archive:Multilingual edition of the Abhidharmakośa in the Bibliotheca Polyglotta
- Sanskrit text of the Abhidharma-kośa-bhāṣya, with Chinese translations by Paramārtha and Xuanzang (from Peking University)
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