Akara-parivitakka (Pali: ākāra-parivitakka) has been translated as follows:
- reflection on reasons, reasoned reflection (B. Bodhi) - analogies (Than. B.) - specious reasoning (Soma Th.). Ākāra has quite a large panel of meanings: 'state, condition, property, quality, attribute, sign, appearance, form, way, mode, manner, reason, ground, account'. 'Appearance' seems to fit the context better than 'reasons'. In that case, ākāra·parivitakka would mean 'reflection on appearances', and would refer to theories such as the big bang theory, which is based on observations of the seeming evolution of the apparent universe.