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The word anger translates several different terms from Buddhist canonical languages. Generally speaking, Buddhist scholars identify a variety of different anger-related mental states. For example, the Tibetan tradition identifies three levels or types of anger:

  • a generalized anger or aversion with regard to other beings or unpleasant circumstances or conditions
  • anger or irritation that is directed primarly towards other beings
  • hostility, rage, etc. that includes the opportunity and the intention to cause harm

Some terms that are commonly translated as anger are:

  1. dvesha (Sanskrit, also dveṣa; Pali: dosa; Tibetan: zhe sdang)
  2. pratigha (Sanskrit; Pali: paṭigha; Tibetan: khong khro)
  3. krodha (Sanskrit; Tibetan: khro ba)