Aniruddha Mahathera

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Aniruddha Mahathera
Aniruddha burma 1937.jpg
Aniruddha Mahathera in Burma in 1937.
Born Gaja Ratna Tuladhar
(1915-12-15)December 15, 1915
Asan, Kathmandu
Died February 17, 2003(2003-02-17) (aged 87)
Language Nepal Bhasa
Nationality Nepalese
Literary movement Theravada revival in Nepal

Aniruddha Mahathera (Devanagari: अनिरुद्ध महाथेरा) (born Gaja Ratna Tuladhar) (15 December 1915 – 17 February 2003) was a Nepalese Buddhist monk and the Sangha Nayak (Patriarch) of Nepal from 1998 until his death in 2003. He was one of the most important figures in the revival of Theravada Buddhism in Nepal and the development of Lumbini, the Buddha's birthplace in southern Nepal, into a center of international pilgrimage.[1]

Early life

Aniruddha (alternative name: Aniruddha Mahasthavir) was born at Asan Dhalasikwa, Kathmandu to father Das Ratna and mother Dibya Laxmi Tuladhar. He was named Gaja Ratna Tuladhar and belonged to a merchant family with a business house in Lhasa, Tibet. His father engaged in trade in Tibet before becoming a Buddhist monk taking up the name Dhammalok Mahasthavir.

Gaja Ratna was eight years old when his father Das Ratna took him along to Lhasa in 1923 as his mother had died and he couldn't be left behind in Kathmandu.[2] Returning from Tibet, he was enrolled at Central Hindu Boarding School in Varanasi. In 1925, Gaja Ratna came back to Kathmandu.[3]

To Sri Lanka and Myanmar

Gaja Ratna accompanied his father to Kolkata on another business trip. There he decided that he wanted to study Buddhism in Sri Lanka, and in 1929, he sailed to Colombo. He enrolled in the Vidyalankara Pirivena Buddhist college and became a novice monk, and was given the name Aniruddha.[4] [5] After spending five years in Sri Lanka and becoming proficient in Sinhala, Pali, Sanskrit and English, he went to Kusinagar, India.

Aniruddha then traveled to Burma (now known as Myanmar) for further studies in Buddhism. A year later in 1937, he received higher ordination in Moulmein. He lived in Moulmein for 10 years studying Burmese and Buddhist literature. In the midst of his study, World War II came to Burma, and he had to keep moving to escape the fighting.[1]

Return to Nepal

Aniruddha returned to Nepal in 1946, and became the first editor of Dharmodaya, a Buddhist magazine in Nepal Bhasa which started publication in 1947 from Kalimpong.

Later, he moved to Lumbini and dedicated himself to developing it as a place of pilgrimage. Lumbini was then a vacant patch surrounded by jungle. The spot, marked by an Ashokan pillar, had been rediscovered in 1896.[6] Aniruddha built a monastery and a rest house, and extended assistance to pilgrims.[7] In 1967, Aniruddha received the then UN Secretary-General U Thant during his visit to Lumbini which led to the formulation of the Lumbini Development Master Plan.[8]

Aniruddha spent 46 years in Lumbini and returned to Kathmandu in 1991 to become the abbot of Ananda Kuti Vihar at Swayambhu.[1] He has translated Buddhists texts from Sinhala and Burmese into Nepal Bhasa and written and published 21 books.[9]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Ven. Bhikkhu Aniruddha: Patriarch of Nepal". Lumbini Nepalese Buddha Dharma Society (UK). 2008. Retrieved 9 May 2012. 
  2. Mahasthavir, Bhikkhu Dharmaloka (1999). A Pilgrimage in China. Kathmandu: Bhikkhu Aniruddha Mahasthavir. Page 127.
  3. Mahasthavir, Bhikkhu Dharmaloka (1999). A Pilgrimage in China. Kathmandu: Bhikkhu Aniruddha Mahasthavir. Pages 1-2.
  4. Mahasthavir, Bhikkhu Dharmaloka (1999). A Pilgrimage in China. Kathmandu: Bhikkhu Aniruddha Mahasthavir. Pages 5-9.
  5. LeVine, Sarah and Gellner, David N. (2005). Rebuilding Buddhism: The Theravada Movement in Twentieth-Century Nepal. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01908-3, 9780674019089. Page 40.
  6. "Major Events Happened in Lumbini". Lumbini Development Trust. 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2012. 
  7. National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States (1968). World order, Volumes 3-4. National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States. Page 23.
  8. "Master Plan". Lumbini Development Trust. 2011. Retrieved 10 May 2012. 
  9. Bajracharya, Phanindra Ratna (2003). Who's Who in Nepal Bhasha. Kathmandu: Nepal Bhasa Academy. ISBN 99933-560-0-X. Page 50.


Historical people list

Historical people

Main subcategories of People are: Historical people - Living people - All people - People categories ... (Is a bio not here, or minimal?)

Masao Abe Robert Baker Aitken Ron Allen (playwright) B. R. Ambedkar Ananda
Balangoda Ananda Maitreya Thero Angulimala Aniruddha Mahathera Anuruddha Nauyane Ariyadhamma Mahathera
Aryadeva Asai Ryōi Assaji Atiśa Nisthananda Bajracharya
Benimadhab Barua Joko Beck Sanjaya Belatthiputta Charles Henry Allan Bennett Hubert Benoit (psychotherapist)
John Blofeld Bodhidharma Edward Espe Brown Polwatte Buddhadatta Thera Buddhaghosa
Acharya Buddharakkhita Marie Byles Ajahn Chah Rerukane Chandawimala Thero Channa
Chokgyur Lingpa Edward Conze L. S. Cousins Brian Cutillo 1st Dalai Lama
2nd Dalai Lama 3rd Dalai Lama 4th Dalai Lama 5th Dalai Lama 6th Dalai Lama
7th Dalai Lama 8th Dalai Lama 9th Dalai Lama 10th Dalai Lama 11th Dalai Lama
12th Dalai Lama 13th Dalai Lama Bidia Dandaron Alexandra David-Néel Marian Derby
Devadatta U Dhammaloka K. Sri Dhammananda Dharmaditya Dharmacharya Dharmakirti
Dharmapala of Nalanda Anagarika Dharmapala Dharmottara Dignāga Dōgen
Dongchu Dongshan Liangjie Khakyab Dorje, 15th Karmapa Lama Rangjung Rigpe Dorje, 16th Karmapa Rangjung Dorje, 3rd Karmapa Lama
Heinrich Dumoulin Düsum Khyenpa, 1st Karmapa Lama Dzongsar Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö Walter Evans-Wentz Family of Gautama Buddha
Frederick Franck Gampopa Gelek Rimpoche Gö Lotsawa Zhönnu-pel Gorampa
Maha Pajapati Mahapajapati Mahapajapati Gotami Rita Gross Gurulugomi
Phagmo Drupa Dorje Gyalpo Tsangpa Gyare Gendun Gyatso Palzangpo Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso Dolpopa
Dolpopa Sherab Gyaltsen Gyeongbong Han Yong-un Thich Nhat Hanh Walisinghe Harischandra
Eugen Herrigel Ernő Hetényi Marie Musaeus Higgins Raicho Hiratsuka Shin'ichi Hisamatsu
Hsuan Hua Huiyuan (Buddhist) Christmas Humphreys K. N. Jayatilleke 2nd Jebtsundamba Khutughtu
9th Jebtsundamba Khutughtu Jeongang Kadawedduwe Jinavamsa Mahathera Ken Jones (Buddhist) David Kalupahana
Dainin Katagiri Katyayana (Buddhist) Bob Kaufman Kaundinya Jack Kerouac
Bogd Khan Khema Ayya Khema Dilgo Khentse Dilgo Khyentse
King Suppabuddha Jamgon Kongtrul Kukkuripa Kumar Kashyap Mahasthavir Kunkhyen Pema Karpo
Drukpa Kunley Trevor Leggett Arthur Lillie Karma Lingpa Robert Linssen
Longchenpa John Daido Loori Albert Low Luipa Taizan Maezumi
Mahakasyapa Mahākāśyapa Mahamoggallana Mahasi Sayadaw Jyotipala Mahathera
Nagasena Mahathera S. Mahinda Gunapala Piyasena Malalasekera Marpa Lotsawa Peter Matthiessen
Maudgalyayana Maya (mother of Buddha) Maya (mother of the Buddha) Gustav Meyrink Edward Salim Michael
Milarepa Mingun Sayadaw Sōkō Morinaga Hiroshi Motoyama Mun Bhuridatta
Myokyo-ni Nagarjuna Nagasena Soen Nakagawa Bhikkhu Nanamoli
Matara Sri Nanarama Mahathera Nanavira Thera Nanda Naropa Nichiren
Kitaro Nishida Gudō Wafu Nishijima Nyanaponika Nyanaponika Thera Nyanatiloka
Thothori Nyantsen Ōbaku Toni Packer Padmasambhava Sakya Pandita
Paramanuchitchinorot Pema Lingpa Prajñāvarman Punna Rāhula
Thotagamuwe Sri Rahula Thera Walpola Rahula Paul Reps Caroline Rhys Davids Sonam Rinchen (Buddhist geshe)
Hammalawa Saddhatissa Kazi Dawa Samdup Chatral Sangye Dorje Ajahn Sao Kantasīlo Sariputta
Sayadaw U Tejaniya Seongcheol Seungsahn Shantideva Shavaripa
Sheng-yen Zenkei Shibayama Takamaro Shigaraki Silabhadra Sīlācāra
Shin Maha Silavamsa Śrāvaka Subhashitaratnanidhi Subhuti Suddhodana
Śuddhodana D. T. Suzuki Shunryū Suzuki Taklung Thangpa Tashi Pal The ten principal disciples
Tiantong Rujing Tilopa Chögyam Trungpa Tsangnyön Heruka Yeshe Tsogyal
Upali Uppalavanna Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo Xuanzang Yasa
Yashodhara Yasodharā Linji Yixuan Zanabazar Śāriputra

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