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Apramāda

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Apramāda (P. appamada; T. bag yod pa; C. bu fangyi 不放逸) is translated as "conscientiousness," "concern," "heedfulness," etc. It is a mental factor which is defined as taking great care concerning what should be adopted and what should be avoided.[1][2]

It is identified as:

Apramāda is the topic of the fourth chapter of the Bodhicharyavatara, where the meaning and implications of apramāda are described in detail.

Explanation

The Abhidharma-samuccaya states:

What is concern (apramāda)? From taking its stand on non-attachment (alobha), non-hatred (adveṣa), and non-deludedness (amoha) coupled with diligence (vīrya), it considers whatever is positive and protects the mind against things which cannot satisfy. Its function is to make complete and to realize all worldly and transworldly excellences.[1]

The Khenjuk states:

  • Tib. བག་ཡོད་པ་ནི་བླང་དོར་གྱི་གནས་ལ་གཟོབ་པ་ལྷུར་ལེན་པ་སྲིད་ཞིའི་ལེགས་པ་སྒྲུབ་པའི་ལས་ཅན་ནོ།
  • Conscientiousness is the earnest application of care concerning what should be adopted and what should be abandoned. Its function is to accomplish the excellence of existence and peace [samsara and nirvana].[2][3]

StudyBuddhism states:

A caring attitude (bag-yod, carefulness) is a subsidiary awareness that, while remaining in a state of detachment, imperturbability, lack of naivety, and joyful perseverance, causes us to meditate on constructive things and safeguards against leaning toward tainted (negative) things. In other words, being disgusted with and not longing for compulsive existence, not wanting to cause harm in response to its suffering, not being naive about the effects of our behavior, and taking joy in acting constructively, a caring attitude brings us to act constructively and to refrain from destructive behavior. This is because we care about the situations of others and ourselves and about the effects of our actions on both; we take them seriously.[4]

Robert Thurman emphasizes the high degree of apramada of someone who has realized emptiness (a.k.a. "voidness"):

This denotes a type of awareness of the most seemingly insignificant aspects of daily life, an awareness derived as a consequence of the highest realization of the ultimate nature of reality. As it is stated in the Anavataptaparipṛcchasutra: "He who realizes voidness, that person is consciously aware." "Ultimate realization," far from obliterating the relative world, brings it into highly specific, albeit dreamlike, focus.[5]

Five types of apramāda

According to the Bodhisattvabhūmi, there are five kinds of apramāda (concern):[1]

  1. Concern with regard to things in the past
  2. Concern with regard to things in the future
  3. Concern with regard to things in the present
  4. Concern with regard to things which were to be done before
  5. Concern with regard to things which continue together with what is done now

Alternate translations

  • A caring attitude (Alexander Berzin)
  • Carefulness (Alexander Berzin, David Karma Choepel)
  • Conscious awareness (Robert Thurman)
  • Conscientiousness (Rigpa wiki)
  • Concern (Herbert Guenther)
  • Heedfulness/vigilance (Buswell)
  • Vigilance (Gyurme Dorje)

See also

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Yeshe Gyeltsen 1975, s.v. concern [bag yod].
  2. 2.0 2.1 Mipham Rinpoche 2004, s.v. Conscientiousness.
  3. RW icon height 18px.png Conscientiousness
  4. Berzin, s.v. A caring attitude (bag-yod, carefulness).
  5. Thurman 2008, p. 158.


Sources

External links

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