Twelve ayatanas (Skt. dvadaśa āyatana; Pali. dvādas’ āyatanāni), or twelve sense bases or twelve sense spheres, are defined within the Abhidharma teachings as sense-fields which serve as the bases for the production of consciousness.
The twelve ayatanas (or sense bases) consist of:
- six external sense bases (sights, sounds, smells, etc.)
- six internal sense bases (eye base, ear base, nose base, etc.)
Thus, there are six internal-external (base-object) pairs of sense bases:
- eye base + visible objects
- ear base + sound
- nose base + odor
- tongue base + taste
- body base + touch
- mind base + mental objects
Buddhism identifies six "senses" as opposed to the Western identification of five. In Buddhism, "mind" denotes an internal sense organ which interacts with sense objects that include sense impressions, feelings, perceptions and volition.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Alternate translations
- 3 External sense bases
- 4 Internal sense bases
- 5 Relation to the four noble truths
- 6 Within the Pali suttas
- 7 Within the Pali commentaries
- 8 Relation to other modes of analysis
- 9 In the Pali language
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Sources
- 13 External links
It is said that ayatana is the door through which experience enters.
- Aya means arrival and
- Tana means that which furthers or extends or goes
- kyé means to be born or to arrive.
- ché (or chépa) means extending or going further
What is arriving and then spreading is sensation, which is differentiated in six ways.
- twelve sense fields (Buswell)
- twelve bases of cognition (Buswell)
- twelve sources of consciousness
- twelve sense-fields
- twelve sense spheres
- twelve sense sources
- twelve sensory activity fields
- twelve sense bases (Bodhi)
- twelve sense-media (Thanissaro)
External sense bases
The six external sense bases (Pali: bāhirāni āyatanāni) are also known as "sense objects" or "domains". They are:
- sights (Skt. rūpa-āyatana; Wyl. gzugs kyi skye mched)
- sounds (Skt.śabda-āyatana; Wyl. sgra'i skye mched)
- smells (Skt. gandha-āyatana; Wyl. dri'i skye mched)
- tastes (Skt. rasa-āyatana; Wyl. ro'i skye mched)
- textures (Skt. spraṣṭavya-āyatana; Wyl. reg bya'i skye mched)
- mental objects' (Skt. dharma-āyatana; Wyl. chos kyi skye mched)
Rupa-ayatana (visible objects)
Rupa-ayatana is translated as "visible objects" or "sights". In the context of the sense bases, rūpa-ayatana refers to visual objects (or objects knowable by the eye through light). This should not be confused with the the term rupa-skandha in the context of the five skandhas, which refers to all material objects, both of the world and the body.
Thus, when comparing these two uses of rūpa, the rupa aggregate (rupa-skandha) includes the rūpa sense-object (rupa-ayatana) as well as the four other material sense-objects (sound, odor, taste and touch).
Dharma-ayatana (mental objects)
Dharma-ayatana is translated here as "mental objects". Other frequently seen translations include
- "mental phenomena" (e.g., Bodhi, 2000b, pp. 1135ff.),
- "ideas" (e.g., Thanissaro, 2001a) and
- "contents of the mind" (VRI, 1996, p. 39)
Internal sense bases
The internal sense bases are:
- eye base (Skt. cakṣur-āyatana; Wyl. mig gi skye mched)
- ear base (Skt. śrotra-āyatana; Wyl. rna ba'i skye mched)
- nose base' (Skt. ghrāṇa-āyatana; Wyl. sna'i skye mched)
- tongue base (Skt. jihva-āyatana; Wyl. lce'i skye mched)
- body base (Skt.kāya-āyatana; Wyl. lus kyi skye mched)
- mind base (Skt. mano-āyatana; Wyl. yid kyi skye mched)
The internal sense bases (Pali: ajjhattikāni āyatanāni) are also known as, "organs", "gates", "doors", "powers" or "roots")
These internal sense bases are not the gross organs themselves (e.g., the eye, ear, etc.), but subtle matter within them.
Mano-ayatana (mind base)
In regards to the sixth internal sense base of mind (mano), Pali subcommentaries (attributed to Dhammapāla Thera) distinguish between consciousness arising from the five physical sense bases and that arising from the the "life-continuum" or "unconscious mind" (bhavaṅga-mana):
- "Of the consciousness or mind aggregate included in a course of cognition of eye-consciousness, just the eye-base [not the mind-base] is the 'door' of origin, and the [external sense] base of the material form is the visible object. So it is in the case of the others [that is, the ear, nose, tongue and body sense bases]. But of the sixth sense-base the part of the mind base called the life-continuum, the unconscious mind, is the 'door' of origin...."
Relation to the four noble truths
In the Four Noble Truths, the Buddha identifies that the origin of suffering (Pali, Skt.: dukkha) is craving (Pali: taṇhā; Skt.: tṛṣṇā). In the chain of Dependent Origination, the Buddha identifies that craving arises from sensations that result from contact at the six sense bases. Therefore, to overcome craving and its resultant suffering, one should develop restraint of and insight into the sense bases.
Within the Pali suttas
Throughout the Pali Canon, the sense bases are referenced in hundreds of discourses. The greatest concentration of discourses related to the sense bases is in the Connected Discourses, chapter 35, entitled "The Book of the Six Sense Bases" (Saḷāyatana-vagga). In these diverse discourses, the sense bases are contextualized in different ways. Some examples follow.
"Six Sextets" discourse
|Figure 1: The Pali Canon's Six Sextets:|
|Source: MN 148 (Thanissaro, 1998) diagram details|
The sense bases include two sets of six: six sense organs (or internal sense bases) and six sense objects (or external sense bases). Based on these six pairs of sense bases, a number of mental factors arise. Thus, for instance, when an ear and sound are present, the associated consciousness (Pali: viññāṇa) arises. The arising of these three elements (dhātu) – ear, sound and ear-related consciousness – lead to what is known as "contact" (phassa) which in turn causes a pleasant or unpleasant or neutral "feeling" or "sensation" (vedanā) to arise. It is from such a feeling that "craving" (taṇhā) arises. (See Figure 1.)
Such an enumeration can be found, for instance, in the "Six Sextets" discourse (Chachakka Sutta, MN 148), where the "six sextets" (six sense organs, six sense objects, six sense-specific types of consciousness, six sense-specific types of contact, six sense-specific types of sensation and six sense-specific types of craving) are examined and found to be empty of self.
"The All" discourse
In a discourse entitled, "The All" (SN 35.23), the Buddha states that there is no "all" outside of the six pairs of sense bases. In the next codified discourse (SN 35.24), the Buddha elaborates that the All includes the first five aforementioned sextets (sense organs, objects, consciousness, contact and sensations). References to the All can be found in a number of subsequent discourses. In addition, the Abhidhamma and post-canonical Pali literature further conceptualize the sense bases as a means for classifying all factors of existence.
"The Vipers" discourse
In "The Vipers" discourse (Asivisa Sutta, SN 35.197), the Buddha likens the internal sense bases to an "empty village" and the external sense bases to "village-plundering bandits." Using this metaphor, the Buddha characterizes the "empty" sense organs as being "attacked by agreeable & disagreeable" sense objects.
Elsewhere in the same collection of discourses (SN 35.191), the Buddha's disciple Sariputta clarifies that the actual suffering associated with sense organs and sense objects is not inherent to these sense bases but is due to the "fetters" (here identified as "desire and lust") that arise when there is contact between a sense organ and sense object.
"The Fire Sermon"
In the "Fire Sermon" (Adittapariyaya Sutta, SN 35.28), delivered several months after the Buddha's awakening, the Buddha describes all sense bases and related mental processes in the following manner:
- "Monks, the All is aflame. What All is aflame? The eye is aflame. Forms are aflame. Consciousness at the eye is aflame. Contact at the eye is aflame. And whatever there is that arises in dependence on contact at the eye – experienced as pleasure, pain or neither-pleasure-nor-pain – that too is aflame. Aflame with what? Aflame with the fire of passion, the fire of aversion, the fire of delusion. Aflame, I tell you, with birth, aging & death, with sorrows, lamentations, pains, distresses, & despairs."
"Abandoning the Fetters" discourse
The Buddha taught that, in order to escape the dangers of the sense bases, one must be able to apprehend the sense bases without defilement. In "Abandoning the Fetters" (SN 35.54), the Buddha states that one abandons the fetters "when one knows and sees ... as impermanent" (Pali: anicca) the six sense organs, objects, sense-consciousness, contact and sensations. Similarly, in "Uprooting the Fetters" (SN 35.55), the Buddha states that one uproots the fetters "when one knows and sees ... as nonself" (anatta) the aforementioned five sextets.
To foster this type of penetrative knowing and seeing and the resultant release from suffering, in the Satipatthana Sutta (MN 10) the Buddha instructs monks to meditate on the sense bases and the dependently arising fetters as follows:
- "How, O bhikkhus, does a bhikkhu live contemplating mental object in the mental objects of the six internal and the six external sense-bases?
- "Here, O bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands the eye and material forms and the fetter that arises dependent on both (eye and forms); he understands how the arising of the non-arisen fetter comes to be; he understands how the abandoning of the arisen fetter comes to be; and he understands how the non-arising in the future of the abandoned fetter comes to be. [In a similar manner:] He understands the ear and sounds ... the organ of smell and odors ... the organ of taste and flavors ... the organ of touch and tactual objects ... the consciousness and mental objects....
- "Thus he lives contemplating mental object in mental objects ... and clings to naught in the world."
Within the Pali commentaries
Explanation from the Vimuttimagga
When the Buddha speaks of "understanding" the eye, ear, nose, tongue and body, what is meant?
According to the Vimuttimagga, the sense organs can be understood in terms of the object sensed, the consciousness aroused, the underlying "sensory matter," and an associated primary or derived element that is present "in excess." These characteristics are summarized in the table below.
|eye||visual objects||visual consciousness||"...the three small fleshy discs round the pupil, and the white and black of the eye-ball that is in five layers of flesh, blood, wind, phlegm and serum, is half a poppy-seed in size, is like the head of a louseling...."||heat (fire)|
|ear||sounds||auditory consciousness||"...in the interior of the two ear-holes, is fringed by tawny hair, is dependent on the membrane, is like the stem of a blue-green bean...."||space|
|nose||odors||olfactory consciousness||"...in the interior of the nose, where the three meet, is dependent on one small opening, is like a Koviḷāra (flower in shape)...."||air|
|tongue||tastes||gustatory consciousness||"...two-finger breadths in size, is in shape like a blue lotus, is located in the flesh of the tongue...."||water|
|body||tangibles||tactual consciousness||"...in the entire body, excepting the hair of the body and the head, nails teeth and other insensitive parts...."||earth|
|Table 1. The Vimuttimagga's characterization of sense organs.|
Explanation from the Visuddhimagga
The Visuddhimagga describes the sense organs in terms of the following four factors:
- characteristic or sign (lakkhaṇa)
- function or "taste" (rasa)
- manifestation (paccupaṭṭhāna)
- proximate cause (padaṭṭhāna)
Thus, for instance, it describes the eye as follows:
- Herein, the eye's characteristic is sensitivity of primary elements that is ready for the impact of visible data; or its characteristic is sensitivity of primary elements originated by kamma sourcing from desire to see. Its function is to pick up [an object] among visible data. It is manifested as the footing of eye-consciousness. Its proximate cause is primary elements born of kamma sourcing from desire to see.
In the Visuddhimagga, Buddhaghosa identifies knowing about the sense bases as part of the "soil" of liberating wisdom. Other components of this "soil" include the aggregates, the faculties, the Four Noble Truths and Dependent Origination.
Relation to other modes of analysis
The abhidharma tradition presents multiple modes with which to analyze the components of an individual and their relationship to the world. The three most common methods of investigation are:
- five skandhas (aggregates, heaps, etc.)
- twelve ayatanas
- eighteen dhatus (sources, etc)
Comparison with the eighteen dhatus
Bhikkhu Bodhi states:
- The eighteen elements are obtained from the twelve bases by dividing the mind base into the seven elements of consciousness (see III, §21). In all other respects the bases and the elements are identical.
Comparision with the five skandhas
In the Pali language
The dhatus are expressed in the Pali langauge as follows:
- Dvādas’ āyatanāni: cakkhāyatanaṃ, sotāyatanaṃ, ghānāyatanaṃ, jivhāyatanaṃ, kāyāyatanaṃ, manāyatanaṃ, rūpāyatanaṃ, saddāyatanaṃ, gandhāyatanaṃ, rasāyatanaṃ, phoṭṭhabbāyatanaṃ, dhammāyatanaṃ.
Bhikkhu Bodhi translates these elements as follows:
- The twelve sense bases are: (1) the eye base, (2) the ear base, (3) the nose base, (4) the tongue base, (5) the body base, (6) the mind base, (7) the visible form base, (8) the sound base, (9) the smell base, (10) the taste base, (11) the tangible base, (12) the mental-object base.
- Heart Sutra - Mahayana text that shows the ayatanas in Mahayana discourse
- Indriya - "faculties", which include a group of "six sensory faculties" similar to the six sense bases
- Satipatthana Sutta - includes a meditation using sense bases as the meditative object
- Five skandhas - a similar Buddhist construct
- Twelve Nidanas - the chain of endless suffering of which the sense bases are the fifth link
- Buswell & Lopez 2014, ayatana
- Hamilton (2001), p. 53, writes: "... six senses, including one relating to non-sensory mental activity, are recognized in Buddhism and other Indian schools of thought...."
- See also Pine 2004, pg. 101. Red Pine argues that this scheme probably predates Buddhism, because it has ten external members (ear, sound, nose, odor, tongue, taste, body, touch) corresponding to the single external skandha (form), and only two internal members (mind and thought) corresponding to the four internal skandhas.
- See, for instance, Bodhi (2000a), p. 288.
- Steven Goodman, Frogs in the Custard (out of print)
- Buswell & Lopez 2014, ayatana
- Buswell & Lopez 2014, ayatana
- "Sense base" is used for instance by Bodhi (2000b) and Soma (1999). "Sense-media" is used by Thanissaro (e.g., cf. Thanissaro, 1998c). "Sense sphere" is used for instance by VRI (1996) and suggested by Rhys Davids & Stede (1921–5), p. 105.
- Pine 2004, pg. 103
- Translation of eye base, etc., is used by Bikkhu Bodhi; see Connected Discourses - Selections
- Pine 2004, pg. 102
- Tenzin Gyatso & Hopkins 2015, Introduction
- Regarding bhavaṅga being a primarily post-canonical concept, see Matthews (1995, p. 128) where he states for instance: "Bhavaṅga does not occur in the Sutta Pitaka, but its appearance in both the Dhammasaṅgaṇi and the Paṭṭhāna assured that it received much post-classical attention in the Theravāda." He further amplifies this in an endnote (p. 140, n. 34): "... [A]lthough bhavaṅga does appear in the Abhidhamma Piṭaka, it is not until the post-classical era that it receives much attention." Citing Ñāṇamoli and others, Matthews (1995, p. 123) defines the "classical age" as "ended about the 4th century A.D.," just prior to the "great age of commentaries."
- Soma (2003), p. 133. This excerpt is from the subcommentary to the Majjhima Nikāya, the Līnatthapakāsanā Tīkā.
- Bodhi (2005b), starting at time 50:00. Bodhi (2005b) references, for instance, Majjhima Nikaya Sutta No. 149, where the Buddha instructs:
- "...[K]nowing & seeing the eye as it actually is present, knowing & seeing [visible] forms... consciousness at the eye... contact at the eye as they actually are present, knowing & seeing whatever arises conditioned through contact at the eye – experienced as pleasure, pain, or neither-pleasure-nor-pain – as it actually is present, one is not infatuated with the eye... forms... consciousness at the eye... contact at the eye... whatever arises.... The craving that makes for further becoming – accompanied by passion & delight, relishing now this & now that – is abandoned by him. His bodily disturbances & mental disturbances are abandoned. His bodily torments & mental torments are abandoned. His bodily distresses & mental distresses are abandoned. He is sensitive both to ease of body & ease of awareness..." (Thanissaro, 1998c).
- For instance, in Bodhi (2000b) edition of the Samyutta Nikaya, this chapter alone has 248 discourses. The Rhys Davids & Stede (1921–25) entry for "Āyatana" (p. 105) also mentions other discourses in each of the Pali nikayas.
- Ñāṇamoli & Bodhi (2001), pp. 1129–36; and, Thanissaro (1998a).
- Bodhi (2000b), p. 1140; and, Thanissaro (2001b). According to Bodhi (2000b), p. 1399, n. 7, the Pali commentary regarding the Sabba Sutta states: "...[I]f one passes over the twelve sense bases, one cannot point out any real phenomenon." Also see Rhys Davids & Stede (1921–25), p. 680, "Sabba" entry where sabbaŋ is defined as "the (whole) world of sense-experience."
- Bodhi (2000b), p. 1140; and, Thanissaro (2001a).
- For instance, SN 35.25 through 35.29, including the famed "Fire Sermon" (SN 35.28).
- Bodhi (2000b), p. 1122.
- In the context of SN 35.197, the term "empty" might simply be meant to convey "passive." It could also be used in the Buddhist sense of self-less, as in anatta (see). In fact, in SN 35.85, the Buddha applies this latter notion of emptiness (suññata) to all internal and external sense bases (Bodhi, 2000b, pp. 1163–64; and Thanissaro, 1997c).
- Bodhi (2000b), pp. 1237–1239 (where this discourse is identified as SN 35.238); Buddhaghosa (1999), p. 490 (where this discourse is identified as S.iv,175); and, Thanissaro (2004). Similarly, in the last sutta of the Samyutta Nikaya's Salayatana-samyutta, entitled "The Sheaf of Barley" (which Bodhi, 2000b, identifies as SN 35.248 and Thanissaro, 1998d, as SN 35.207), the Buddha describes the sense organs as "struck" or "thrashed" by "agreeable and disagreeable" sense objects (Bodhi, 2000b, pp. 1257–59; Thanissaro, 1998d).
- Bodhi (2000b), pp. 1230–1231 (where this discourse is identified as SN 35.232); and, Thanissaro (1997b).
- Thanissaro, 1993. For other references to the sense bases as "the All," see Thanissaro (2001b) and Thanissaro (2001a). The sense bases are "the All" insomuch that all we know of the world is known through the sense bases.
- Bodhi (2000b), p. 1148.
- Bodhi (2000b), p. 1148. For a correspondence between impermanence and nonself, see Three marks of existence.
- Soma (1999), section entitled, "The Six Internal and the Six External Sense-bases."
- In terms of the Pali commentaries, for instance, there is overlap between the Visuddhimagga and the commentary to the Dhammasangani, Atthasālinī (e.g., cf. Vsm. XIV,49 [Buddhaghosa, 1999, p. 446] and Asl. 310 [Rhys Davids, 1900, p. 178 n. 2]).
- In regards to defining the sense bases in terms of excess primary elements, the Visuddhimagga (Vsm. XIV, 42) is critical:
- "... Others say that the eye is sensitivity of those [primary elements] that have fire in excess, and that the ear, nose, tongue, and body are [sensitivity] of those [primary elements] that have [respectively] aperture, air, water and earth in excess. They should be asked to quote a sutta. They will certainly not find one." (Buddhaghosa, 1999, p. 444, para. 42.)
- Unlike the other elements in this column, "space" is not considered a "primary" element but is identified as "derived material" (that is, derived from the four primaries of earth, water, fire and air). The space element is characterized by: "what delimits matter is called the element of space" (Upatissa et al., 1995, pp. 238, 240).
- This table is based on Upatissa et al. (1995), pp. 238–240.
- Vsm. XIV, 37 (trans. Buddhaghosa, 1999, p. 443; square-bracketed text in original). The Pali (from the Burmese CSCD, retrieved 2008-04-16 from "VRI" at http://www.tipitaka.org/romn/cscd/e0102n.mul2.xml) associated with this passage is:
- Tattha rūpābhighātārahatappasādalakkhaṇaṃ daṭṭhukāmatānidānakammasamuṭṭhānabhūtappasādalakkhaṇaṃ vā cakkhu, rūpesu āviñchanarasaṃ, cakkhuviññāṇassa ādhārabhāvapaccupaṭṭhānaṃ, daṭṭhukāmatānidānakammajabhūtapadaṭṭhānaṃ.
- Buddhaghosa & Ñāṇamoli (1999), pp. 442–43.
- Bhikkhu Bodhi (2000a). A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma: The Abhidhammattha Sangaha. Pariyatti Publishing. Kindle Edition. Section "The Eighteen Elements".
- Bodhi (2000a), Section "The Twelve Sense Bases"
- Aung, S.Z. & C.A.F. Rhys Davids (trans.) (1910). Compendium of Philosophy (Translation of the Abhidhamm'attha-sangaha). Chipstead: Pali Text Society. Cited in Rhys Davids & Stede (1921–5).
- Bodhi, Bhikkhu (ed.) (2000a). A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma: The Abhidhammattha Sangaha of Ācariya Anuruddha. Seattle, WA: BPS Pariyatti Editions. ISBN 1-928706-02-9.
- Bodhi, Bhikkhu (trans.) (2000b). The Connected Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya. (Part IV is "The Book of the Six Sense Bases (Salayatanavagga)".) Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-331-1.
- Bodhi, Bhikkhu (2005a). In the Buddha's Words: An Anthology of Discourses from the Pali Canon. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-491-1.
- Bodhi, Bhikkhu (18 Jan 2005b). MN 10: Satipatthana Sutta (continued) (MP3 audio file) [In this series of talks on the Majjhima Nikaya, this is Bodhi's ninth talk on the Satipatthana Sutta. In this talk, the discussion regarding the sense bases starts at time 45:36]. Available on-line at http://www.bodhimonastery.net/MP3/M0060_MN-010.mp3.
- Buddhaghosa, Bhadantācariya (trans. from Pāli by Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli) (1999). The Path of Purification: Visuddhimagga. (Chapter XV is "The Bases and Elements (Ayatana-dhatu-niddesa)".) Seattle, WA: BPS Pariyatti Editions. ISBN 1-928706-00-2.
- Buswell, Robert E.; Lopez, Donald S. (2014), The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism, Princeton University
- Hamilton, Sue (2001). Indian Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-285374-5.
- Matthews, Bruce (1995). "Post-Classical Developments in the Concepts of Karma and Rebirth in Theravāda Buddhism," in Ronald W. Neufeldt (ed.), Karma and Rebirth: Post-Classical Developments. Delhi, Sri Satguru Publications. (Originally published by the State University of New York, 1986). ISBN 81-7030-430-X.
- Ñāṇamoli, Bhikkhu (trans.) & Bodhi, Bhikkhu (ed.) (2001). The Middle-Length Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Majjhima Nikāya. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-072-X.
- Rhys Davids, Caroline A.F. (, 2003). Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics, of the Fourth Century B.C., Being a Translation, now made for the First Time, from the Original Pāli, of the First Book of the Abhidhamma-Piṭaka, entitled Dhamma-Saṅgaṇi (Compendium of States or Phenomena). Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-4702-9.
- Red Pine. The Heart Sutra: The Womb of the Buddhas (2004) Shoemaker & Hoard. ISBN 1-59376-009-4
- Rhys Davids, T.W. & William Stede (eds.) (1921–5). The Pali Text Society’s Pali–English Dictionary. Chipstead: Pali Text Society. A general on-line search engine for the PED is available at http://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/pali/.
- Soma Thera (trans.) (1999). The Discourse on the Arousing of Mindfulness (MN 10). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.010.soma.html.
- Soma Thera (2003). The Way of Mindfulness: English translation of the Satipaṭṭhāna Sutta Commentary. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. ISBN 955-24-0256-5.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1993). Adittapariyaya Sutta: The Fire Sermon (SN 35.28). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.028.than.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997a). Kamma Sutta: Action (SN 35.145). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.145.than.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997b). Kotthita Sutta: To Kotthita (SN 35.191). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.191.than.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1997c). Suñña Sutta: Empty (SN 35.85). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.085.than.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1998a). Chachakka Sutta: The Six Sextets (MN 148). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.148.than.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1998b). Loka Sutta: The World (SN 12.44). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn12/sn12.044.than.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1998c). Maha-salayatanika Sutta: The Great Six Sense-media Discourse (MN 149). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.149.than.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (1998d). Yavakalapi Sutta: The Sheaf of Barley (SN 35.207). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.207.than.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (2001a). Pahanaya Sutta: To Be Abandoned (SN 35.24). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.024.than.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (2001b). Sabba Sutta: The All (SN 35.23). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.023.than.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans.) (2004). Asivisa Sutta: Vipers (SN 35.197). Available on-line at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/sn/sn35/sn35.197.than.html.
- Upatissa, Arahant, N.R.M. Ehara (trans.), Soma Thera (trans.) and Kheminda Thera (trans.) (1995). The Path of Freedom (Vimuttimagga). Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. ISBN 955-24-0054-6.
- Vipassana Research Institute (VRI) (trans.) (1996). Mahāsatipaṭṭhāna Sutta: The Great Discourse on Establishing Mindfulness (Pali-English edition). Seattle, WA: Vipassana Research Publications of America. ISBN 0-9649484-0-0.
- "Salayatana Vagga – The Section on the Six Sense Bases" of the Samyutta Nikaya, on www.accesstoinsight.org
- Bhikkhu Bodhi’s In The Buddha’s Words IX: Shining the Light of Wisdom
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