Charya tantra

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Four Classes of Tantra
Three outer classes
1. Yana of kriya tantra
2. Yana of charya tantra
3. Yana of yoga tantra
Inner class
4. Highest yoga tantra
Related topics
Tibetan Canon ~ Inner (Nyingma)

Charya tantra (Skt. caryātantra; Tib. སྤྱོད་རྒྱུད་, Wyl. spyod rgyud) aka Upayogatantra or Ubhayatantra (ཨུ་པའི་རྒྱུད་, u pa'i rgyud) is a classification of tantras within Tibetan Buddhism.

The vehicle of charya or ‘conduct’ tantra is so-called because it places an equal emphasis on the outer actions of body and speech and the inner cultivation of samadhi. It is also called the ‘tantra of both’ (Skt. ubhaya tantra) because its view conforms with that of yoga tantra, while its conduct is similar to that of kriya tantra.

The vehicle of charya tantra is identified within the following contexts:

Charya tantra within the nine yanas

The Nine Yanas
Sutrayana (Outer Yanas)
1. Sravakayana
2. Pratyekabuddhayana
3. Bodhisattvayana
Three outer tantras
4. Yana of kriya tantra
5. Yana of charya tantra
6. Yana of yoga tantra
Three inner tantras
7. Yana of mahayoga
8. Yana of anuyoga
9. Yana of atiyoga
Related topics
Tibetan Canon ~ Four classes

Alak Zenkar Rinpoche explains the vehicle (yana) of charya tantra according to the system of nine yanas as follows:

The vehicle of caryā or ‘conduct’ tantra is so-called because it places an equal emphasis on the outer actions of body and speech and the inner cultivation of samādhi. It is also called the ‘tantra of both’ (ubhaya tantra) because its view conforms with that of yoga tantra, while its conduct is similar to that of kriyā.

I will now say a little about its entry point, view, meditation, conduct and results.

i. Entry Point

One is matured by means of the five empowerments, which include the empowerments of the vajra, bell and name in addition to the water and crown empowerments, and then maintains the samayas of caryā tantra, as described in the particular texts themselves.

ii. View

The view is determined in the same way as in the yoga tantra, so it will be explained below.

iii. Meditation

One visualizes oneself as the samaya being and visualizes the wisdom deity, who is regarded as a friend, in front of oneself, and then practises the conceptual meditations on the syllable, mudrā and form of the deity, and the non-conceptual meditation on absolute bodhicitta by means of entering, remaining and arising.[12]

iv. Conduct

The conduct here is the same as in kriyā tantra.

v. Results

In the short term, one attains the common accomplishments and ultimately one reaches the level of a vajradhara of the four buddha families, i.e., the three mentioned earlier plus the ratna family.[1]

Within East Asian Buddhism

The tantras within this category are also signficant within the East Asian traditions of Shingon and Tendai. However these traditions follow a different classificaton system.[2]

References

This article includes content from Charya Tantra on Rigpawiki (view authors). Licensed under CC BY-NC 3.0 RW icon height 18px.png