Classical Tibetan

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Classical Tibetan refers to the language of any text written in Tibetic after the Old Tibetan period; though it extends from the 7th century until the modern day,[1] it particularly refers to the language of early canonical texts translated from other languages, especially Sanskrit. The phonology implied by Classical Tibetan orthography is basically identical to the phonology of Old Tibetan, but the grammar varies greatly depending on period and geographic origin of the author. Such variation is an under-researched topic.

In 816, during the reign of King Sadnalegs, literary Tibetan underwent a thorough reform aimed at standardizing the language and vocabulary of the translations being made from Indian texts, which resulted in what is now called Classical Tibetan.[2]

See also


  1. Tournadre, Nicolas (2003). Manual of Standard Tibetan (MST). Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publications, p. 479.
  2. Hodge, Stephen (1993). An Introduction to Classical Tibetan ("Revised" ed.). Warminster: Aris & Phillips. pp. vii. ISBN 0856685488. 

Further reading

  • Beyer, Stephen, 1992. The Classical Tibetan language. New York: State University of New York. Reprint 1993, (Bibliotheca Indo-Buddhica series, 116.) Delhi: Sri Satguru.
  • Hahn, Michael, 2003. Schlüssel zum Lehrbuch der klassischen tibetischen Schriftsprache Marburg : Indica et Tibetica Verlag
  • Hill, Nathan W. (2007). "Personalpronomina in der Lebensbeschreibung des Mi la ras pa, Kapitel III". Zentralasiatische Studien: 277–287. 
  • Hill, Nathan W. (2010), "Brief overview of Tibetan Verb Morphology" (PDF), Lexicon of Tibetan Verb Stems as Reported by the Grammatical Tradition, Studia Tibetica, Munich: Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, pp. xv–xxii 
  • Hill, Nathan W. (2012). "Tibetan -las, -nas, and -bas". Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale. 41 (1): 3–38. 
  • Hodge, Stephen, 2003. An introduction to classical Tibetan. Bangkok: Orchid Press
  • Schwieger, Peter, 2006. Handbuch zur Grammatik der klassischen tibetischen Schriftsprache. Halle: International Institute for Tibetan and Buddhist Studies GmbH.
  • Tournadre, Nicolas (2003). Manual of Standard Tibetan (MST). Ithaca, NY: Snow Lion Publications, p. 479.
  • skal-bzhang 'gur-med, 1992. Le clair miroir : enseignement de la grammaire Tibetaine (trans.) Heather Stoddard & Nicholas Tournandre, Paris : Editions Prajna

External links

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