Common Era

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Common Era or Current Era (CE)[1] is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system. The era preceding CE is known as before the Common Era or before the Current Era (BCE), while the Dionysian era distinguishes eras as AD (anno Domini, "[the] year of [the] Lord")[2] and BC ("before Christ"). Since the two notation systems are numerically equivalent, "2019 CE" corresponds to "AD 2019" and "400 BCE" corresponds to "400 BC".[2][3][4][lower-alpha 1] Both notations refer to the Gregorian calendar (and its predecessor, the Julian calendar). The year-numbering system utilized by the Gregorian calendar is used throughout the world today, and is an international standard for civil calendars.[5]

The expression has been traced back to 1615, when it first appeared in a book by Johannes Kepler as the Latin usage vulgaris aerae,[6][7] and to 1635 in English as "Vulgar Era".[lower-alpha 2] The term "Common Era" can be found in English as early as 1708,[8] and became more widely used in the mid-19th century by Jewish academics. In the later 20th century, the use of CE and BCE was popularized in academic and scientific publications, and more generally by authors and publishers wishing to emphasize secularism or sensitivity to non-Christians, by not explicitly referencing Jesus as "Christ" and Dominus ("Lord") through use of the abbreviation[lower-alpha 3] "AD".[10][11]

History

Origins

The year numbering system used with Common Era notation was devised by the Christian monk Dionysius Exiguus in the year 525 to replace the Era of Martyrs system, because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians.[12] He attempted to number years from an initial reference date ("epoch"), an event he referred to as the Incarnation of Jesus.[12][13][14] Dionysius labeled the column of the table in which he introduced the new era as "Anni Domini Nostri Jesu Christi".[15]

Numbering years in this manner became more widespread in Europe with its usage by Bede in England in 731. Bede also introduced the practice of dating years before what he supposed was the year of birth of Jesus,[16] and the practice of not using a year zero.[lower-alpha 4] In 1422, Portugal became the last Western Europe an country to switch to the system begun by Dionysius.[17]

Vulgar Era

Johannes Kepler first used "Vulgar Era" to distinguish dates on the Christian calendar from the regnal year typically used in national law.

The term "Common Era" is traced back in English to its appearance as "Vulgar Era"[lower-alpha 5] to distinguish dates on the Ecclesiastic calendar from those of the regnal year, the year of reign of a sovereign, typically used in national law.

The first use of the Latin term vulgaris aerae[lower-alpha 6] discovered so far was in a 1615 book by Johannes Kepler.[7] Kepler uses it again in a 1616 table of ephemerides,[18] and again in 1617.[19] A 1635 English edition of that book has the title page in English – so far, the earliest-found usage of Vulgar Era in English.[20] A 1701 book edited by John LeClerc includes "Before Christ according to the Vulgar Æra, 6".[21] A 1716 book in English by Dean Humphrey Prideaux says, "before the beginning of the vulgar æra, by which we now compute the years from his incarnation."[22][23] A 1796 book uses the term "vulgar era of the nativity".[24]

The first so-far-discovered usage of "Christian Era" is as the Latin phrase aerae christianae on the title page of a 1584 theology book.[25] In 1649, the Latin phrase æræ Christianæ appeared in the title of an English almanac.[26] A 1652 ephemeris is the first instance so-far-found for English usage of "Christian Era".[27]

The English phrase "common Era" appears at least as early as 1708,[8] and in a 1715 book on astronomy is used interchangeably with "Christian Era" and "Vulgar Era".[28] A 1759 history book uses common æra in a generic sense, to refer to the common era of the Jews.[29] The first-so-far found usage of the phrase "before the common era" is in a 1770 work that also uses common era and vulgar era as synonyms, in a translation of a book originally written in German.[30] The 1797 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica uses the terms vulgar era and common era synonymously.[31] In 1835, in his book Living Oracles, Alexander Campbell, wrote: "The vulgar Era, or Anno Domini; the fourth year of Jesus Christ, the first of which was but eight days",[32] and also refers to the common era as a synonym for vulgar era with "the fact that our Lord was born on the 4th year before the vulgar era, called Anno Domini, thus making (for example) the 42d year from his birth to correspond with the 38th of the common era..."[33] The Catholic Encyclopedia (1909) in at least one article reports all three terms (Christian, Vulgar, Common Era) being commonly understood by the early 20th century.[34]

The phrase "common era", in lower case, also appeared in the 19th century in a generic sense, not necessarily to refer to the Christian Era, but to any system of dates in common use throughout a civilization. Thus, "the common era of the Jews",[35][36] "the common era of the Mahometans",[37] "common era of the world",[38] "the common era of the foundation of Rome".[39] When it did refer to the Christian Era, it was sometimes qualified, e.g., "common era of the Incarnation",[40] "common era of the Nativity",[41] or "common era of the birth of Christ".[42]

An adapted translation of Common Era into pseudo-Latin as Era Vulgaris (in Latin this means Common Mistress)[43] was adopted in the 20th century by some followers of Aleister Crowley, and thus the abbreviation "e.v." or "EV" may sometimes be seen as a replacement for AD.[44]

Contemporary usage

Some academics in the fields of theology, education and history have adopted CE and BCE notation, although there is some disagreement.[45]

More visible uses of Common Era notation have recently surfaced at major museums in the English-speaking world. Furthermore, several style guides now prefer or mandate its usage.[46] Even some style guides for Christian churches prefer its use: for example, the Episcopal Diocese Maryland Church News.[47]

In the United States, the usage of the BCE/CE notation in textbooks is growing.[48] Some publications have moved over to using it exclusively. For example, the 2007 World Almanac was the first edition to switch over to the BCE/CE usage, ending a 138-year usage of the traditional BC/AD dating notation. It is used by the College Board in its history tests,[49] and by the Norton Anthology of English Literature. Others have taken a different approach. The US-based History Channel uses BCE/CE notation in articles on non-Christian religious topics such as Jerusalem and Judaism.[50]

In 2002, England and Wales introduced the BCE/CE notation system into the official school curriculum.[51]

In June 2006, in the United States, the Kentucky State School Board reversed its decision to use BCE and CE in the state's new Program of Studies, leaving education of students about these concepts a matter of discretion at the local level.[52][53][54]

Also in 2011, media reports suggested that the BC/AD notation in Australian school textbooks would be replaced by BCE/CE notation.[55] The story became national news and drew opposition from some politicians and church leaders. Weeks after the story broke, the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority denied the rumour and stated that the BC/AD notation would remain, with CE and BCE as an optional suggested learning activity.[56]

Conventions in style guides

The abbreviation BCE, just as with BC, always follows the year number. Unlike AD, which traditionally precedes the year number, CE always follows the year number (if context requires that it be written at all).[57] Thus, the current year is written as 2019 in both notations (or, if further clarity is needed, as 2019 CE, or as AD 2019), and the year that Socrates died is represented as 399 BCE (the same year that is represented by 399 BC in the BC/AD notation). The abbreviations are sometimes written with small capital letters, or with periods (e.g., "B.C.E." or "C.E.").[58] Style guides for academic texts on religion generally prefer BCE/CE to BC/AD.[59]

Notes

  1. Two separate systems that also do not use religious titles, the astronomical system and the ISO 8601 standard, do use a year zero. The year 1 BCE (identical to the year 1 BC) is represented as 0 in the astronomical system, and as 0000 in ISO 8601. Presently, ISO 8601 dating requires use of the Gregorian calendar for all dates, however, whereas astronomical dating and Common Era dating allow use of either the Gregorian or Julian calendars.
  2. The word "Vulgar" (from Latin vulgaris) originally meant ordinary, common-place, or not regal or regnal. (See wiktionary:vulgar)
  3. AD is shortened from anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi ("in the year of Our Lord Jesus Christ").[9]
  4. As noted in History of the zero, the use of zero in Western civilization was uncommon before the twelfth century.
  5. from the Latin word vulgus, the common people, i.e., those who are not royalty.[citation needed]
  6. In Latin, Common Era is written as Vulgaris Aerae. It also occasionally appears as æræ vulgaris, aerae vulgaris, aeram vulgarem, anni vulgaris, vulgaris aerae Christianae, and anni vulgatae nostrae aerae Christianas.


References

  1. BBC Team (8 February 2005). "History of Judaism 63 BCE – 1086 CE". BBC Religion & Ethics. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 2016-04-20. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Anno Domini". Merriam Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. 2003. Retrieved 2011-10-04. Etymology: Medieval Latin, in the year of the Lord 
  3. "Controversy over the use of the "CE/BCE" and "AD/BC" dating notation/". Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  4. "Common Era". American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1992. 
  5. Richards, E. G. (2012). "Calendars" (PDF). In Urban, S. E.; Seidelmann, P. K. Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac (3rd ed.). Mill Valley, CA: University Science Books. p. 585. 
  6. Coolman, Robert. "Keeping Time: The Origin of B.C. & A.D." Live Science. Retrieved 11 November 2017. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Earliest-found use of "vulgaris aerae" (Latin for Common Era) (1615)". Retrieved 2011-05-18. Johannes Kepler (1615). Joannis Keppleri Eclogae chronicae: ex epistolis doctissimorum aliquot virorum & suis mutuis, quibus examinantur tempora nobilissima: 1. Herodis Herodiadumque, 2. baptismi & ministerii Christi annorum non plus 2 1/4, 3. passionis, mortis et resurrectionis Dn. N. Iesu Christi, anno aerae nostrae vulgaris 31. non, ut vulgo 33., 4. belli Iudaici, quo funerata fuit cum Ierosolymis & Templo Synagoga Iudaica, sublatumque Vetus Testamentum. Inter alia & commentarius in locum Epiphanii obscurissimum de cyclo veteri Iudaeorum. (in Latin). Francofurti:Tampach. anno aerae nostrae vulgaris 
  8. 8.0 8.1 first so-far-found use of common era in English (1708). Printed for H. Rhodes. 1708. Retrieved 2011-05-18.  The History of the Works of the Learned. 10. London. January 1708. p. 513. 
  9. Irvin, Dale T.; Sunquist, Scott (2001). History of the World Christian Movement. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. xi. ISBN 0-567-08866-9. Retrieved 2011-05-18. The influence of western culture and scholarship upon the rest of the world in turn led to this system of dating becoming the most widely used one across the globe today. Many scholars in historical and religious studies in the West in recent years have sought to lessen the explicitly Christian meaning of this system without abandoning the usefulness of a single, common, global form of dating. For this reason the terms common era and before the common era, abbreviated as CE and BCE, have grown in popularity as designations. The terms are meant, in deference to non-Christians, to soften the explicit theological claims made by the older Latin terminology, while at the same time providing continuity with earlier generations of mostly western Christian historical research. 
  10. Andrew Herrmann (27 May 2006). "BCE date designation called more sensitive". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2016-09-18. Herrmann observes, "The changes – showing up at museums, in academic circles and in school textbooks – have been touted as more sensitive to people of faiths outside of Christianity." However, Herrmann notes, "The use of BCE and CE have rankled some Christians" 
  11. McKim, Donald K (1996). Common Era entry. Westminster dictionary of theological terms. ISBN 978-0-664-25511-4. Retrieved 2011-05-18. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Pedersen, O. (1983). "The Ecclesiastical Calendar and the Life of the Church". In Coyne, G.V. et al. (Eds.). The Gregorian Reform of the Calendar. Vatican Observatory. p. 50. Retrieved 2011-05-18. 
  13. Doggett, L.E., (1992), "Calendars" in Seidelmann, P.K., The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, Sausalito CA: University Science Books, 2.1
  14. Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (1995). The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-3781-3. Retrieved 2011-05-18. 
  15. Pedersen, O., (1983), "The Ecclesiastical Calendar and the Life of the Church" in Coyne, G.V. et al. (Eds.) The Gregorian Reform of the Calendar, Vatican Observatory, p. 52.
  16. Bede wrote of the Incarnation of Jesus, but treated it as synonymous with birth. Blackburn, B & Holford-Strevens, L, (2003), The Oxford Companion to the Year, Oxford University Press, 778.
  17. "General Chronology". New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol III. Robert Appleton Company, New York. 1908. Retrieved 2011-05-18. 
  18. Kepler, Johann (1616). Second use of "vulgaris aerae" (Latin for Common Era) (1616). Plancus. Retrieved 2011-05-18.  Kepler, Johann (1616). Ephemerides novae motuum caelestium, ab Ānno vulgaris aerae MDCXVII en observationibus potissimum Tychonis Brahei hypothesibus physicis, et tabulis Rudolphinis... Plancus. 
  19. Kepler, Johannes; Fabricus, David (1617). Third use of "vulgaris aerae" (Latin for Common Era) (1617). sumptibus authoris, excudebat Iohannes Plancus. Retrieved 2011-05-18.  Johannes Kepler, Jakob Bartsch (1617). Ephemerides novae motuum coelestium, ab anno vulgaris aerae MDCXVII[-XXXVI]... Johannes Plancus. Part 3 has title: Tomi L Ephemeridvm Ioannis Kepleri pars tertia, complexa annos à M.DC.XXIX. in M.DC.XXXVI. In quibus & tabb. Rudolphi jam perfectis, et sociâ operâ clariss. viri dn. Iacobi Bartschii ... Impressa Sagani Silesiorvm, in typographeio Ducali, svmptibvs avthoris, anno M.DC.XXX.  * Translation of title (per 1635 English edition): New Ephemerids for the Celestiall Motions, for the Yeeres of the Vulgar Era 1617–1636
  20. Kepler, Johann; Vlacq, Adriaan (1635). Earliest so-far-found use of vulgar era in English (1635). Retrieved 2011-05-18.  Johann Kepler; Adriaan Vlacq (1635). Ephemerides of the Celestiall Motions, for the Yeers of the Vulgar Era 1633... 
  21. Clerc, Jean Le (1701). vulgar era in English (1701). Retrieved 2011-05-18.  John LeClerc, ed. (1701). The Harmony of the Evangelists. London: Sam Buckley. p. 5. Before Christ according to the Vulgar AEra, 6 
  22. Prideaux, Humphrey (1799). Prideaux use of "Vulgar Era" (1716) (reprint ed.). Retrieved 2011-05-18. reckoning it backward from the vulgar era of Christ's incarnation  Humphrey Prideaux, D.D. (1716) [from Oxford University Press 1799 (1716 edition not online, 1749 online is Vol 2)]. The Old and New Testament Connected in the History of the Jews and Neighbouring Nations. 1. Edinburgh. p. 1. This happened in the seventh year after the building of Rome, and in the second year of the eighth Olympiad, which was the seven hundred forty-seventh year before Christ, i. e. before the beginning of the vulgar æra, by which we now compute the years from his incarnation. 
  23. Merriam Webster accepts the date of 1716, but does not give the source. "Merriam Webster Online entry for Vulgar Era". Retrieved 2011-05-18. 
  24. Robert Walker (Rector of Shingham); Newton, Sir Isaac; Falconer, Thomas (1796). "vulgar era of the nativity" (1796). T. Cadell jun. and W. Davies. Retrieved 2011-05-18.  Rev. Robert Walker; Isaac Newton; Thomas Falconer (1796). Analysis of Researches Into the Origin and Progress of Historical Time, from the Creation to ... London: T. Cadell Jr. and W. Davies. p. 10. Dionysius the Little brought the vulgar era of the nativity too low by four years. 
  25. "1584 Latin use of aerae christianae". Retrieved 2011-05-18.  Grynaeus, Johann Jacob; Beumler, Marcus (1584). De Eucharistica controuersia, capita doctrinae theologicae de quibus mandatu, illustrissimi principis ac domini, D. Iohannis Casimiri, Comites Palatini ad Rhenum, Ducis Bauariae, tutoris & administratoris Electoralis Palatinatus, octonis publicis disputationibus (quarum prima est habita 4 Apr. anno aerae christianae 1584, Marco Beumlero respondente) praeses Iohannes Iacobus Grynaeus, orthodoxae fidei rationem interrogantibus placidè reddidit ; accessit eiusdem Iohannis Iacobi Grynaeus synopsis orationis, quam de disputationis euentu, congressione nona, quae indicit in 15 Aprilis, publicè habuit (in Latin) (Editio tertia ed.). Heidelbergae: Typis Iacobi Mylij. OCLC 123471534. 4 Apr. anno aerae christianae 1584 
  26. "1649 use of æræ Christianæ in English book – 1st usage found in English". Retrieved 2011-05-18.  WING, Vincent (1649). Speculum uranicum, anni æræ Christianæ, 1649, or, An almanack and prognosication for the year of our Lord, 1649 being the first from bissextile or leap-year, and from the creation of the world 5598, wherein is contained many useful, pleasant and necessary observations, and predictions ... : calculated (according to art) for the meridian and latitude of the ancient borrough town of Stamford in Lincolnshire ... and without sensible errour may serve the 3. kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. London: J.L. for the Company of Stationers. anni æræ Christianæ, 1649 
  27. first appearance of "Christian Era" in English (1652). Retrieved 2016-11-02.  Sliter, Robert (1652). A celestiall glasse, or, Ephemeris for the year of the Christian era 1652 being the bissextile or leap-year: contayning the lunations, planetary motions, configurations & ecclipses for this present year ... : with many other things very delightfull and necessary for most sorts of men: calculated exactly and composed for ... Rochester. London: Printed for the Company of Stationers. 
  28. Gregory, David; John Nicholson; John Morphew (1715). The Elements of Astronomy, Physical and Geometrical. 1. London: printed for J. Nicholson, and sold by J. Morphew. p. 252. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Some say the World was created 3950 Years before the common Æra of Christ  Before Christ and Christian Era appear on the same page 252, while Vulgar Era appears on page 250
  29. Sale, George; Psalmanazar, George; Bower, Archibald; Shelvocke, George; Campbell, John; Swinton, John (1759). 1759 use of common æra. Printed for C. Bathurst. Retrieved 2011-05-18.  Sale, George; Psalmanazar, George; Bower, Archibald; Shelvocke, George; Campbell, John; Swinton, John (1759). An Universal History: From the Earliest Accounts to the Present Time. 13. London: C. Bathurst [etc.] p. 130. at which time they fixed that for their common era  In this case, their refers to the Jews.
  30. Von), Jakob Friedrich Bielfeld (Freiherr; Hooper, William (1770). First-so-far found English usage of "before the common era", with "vulgar era" synonymous with "common era" (1770). Printed by G. Scott, for J. Robson and B. Law. Retrieved 2011-05-18.  Hooper, William; Bielfeld, Jacob Friedrich (1770). The Elements of Universal Erudition: Containing an Analytical Abridgment of the Sciences, Polite Arts, and Belles Lettres. 2. London: G. Scott, printer, for J Robson, bookseller in New-Bond Street, and B. Law in Ave-Mary Lane. pp. 105, 63. in the year of the world 3692, and 312 years before the vulgar era.... The Spanish era began with the year of the world 3966, and 38 years before the common era (p63) 
  31. MacFarquhar, Colin; Gleig, George (1797). "vulgar era" in 1797 EB. A. Bell and C. Macfarquhar. p. 228 v. 14 pt. 1 P (Peter). Retrieved 2011-05-18. St Peter died in the 66th year of the vulgar era 
    MacFarquhar, Colin; Gleig, George (1797). "common era" in 1797 EB. A. Bell and C. Macfarquhar. p. 50 v. 14 pt. 1 P (Paul). Retrieved 2011-05-18. This happened in the 33rd year of the common era, fome time after our Saviour's death. 
    George Gleig, ed. (1797). Encyclopædia Britannica: Or, A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Miscellaneous Literature (Third Edition in 18 volumes). Edinburgh. v. 14 pt. 1 P. 
  32. Alexander Campbell (1835). The Living Oracles, Fourth Edition. pp. 16–20. Retrieved 2011-05-18. 
  33. Alexander Campbell (1835). The Living Oracles, Fourth Edition. pp. 15–16. Retrieved 2011-05-18. 
  34. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03738a.htm#christian "Foremost among these [various eras] is that which is now adopted by all civilized peoples and known as the Christian, Vulgar or Common Era, in the twentieth century of which we are now living".
  35. Encyclopedia, Popular (1874). "common era of the Jews" (1874). Retrieved 2011-05-18. the common era of the Jews places the creation in BC 3760  A. Whitelaw, ed. (1874). Conversations Lexicon. The Popular Encyclopedia. V. Oxford University Press. p. 207. 
  36. "common era of the Jews" (1858). Wertheim, MacIntosh & Hunt. 1858. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Hence the present year, 1858, in the common era of the Jews, is AM 5618-5619, a difference of more than 200 years from our commonly-received chronology.  Rev. Bourchier Wrey Savile, MA (1858). The first and second Advent: or, The past and the future with reference to the Jew, the Gentile, and the Church of God. London: Wertheim, Macintosh and Hunt. p. 176. 
  37. Gumpach, Johannes von (1856). "common era of the Mahometans" (1856). Retrieved 2011-05-18. Its epoch is the first of March old style. The common era of the Mahometans, as has already been stated, is that of the flight of Mahomet.  Johannes von Gumpach (1856). Practical tables for the reduction of Mahometan dates to the Christian calendar. Oxford University. p. 4. 
  38. Jones, William (1801). "common era of the world" (1801). F. and C. Rivington. Retrieved 2011-05-18.  Jones, William (1801). The Theological, Philosophical and Miscellaneous Works of the Rev. William Jones. London: Rivington. 
  39. Alexander Fraser Tytler, HON (1854). "common era of the foundation of Rome" (1854). Retrieved 2011-05-18.  Alexander Fraser Tytler, Lord Woodhouselee (1854). Universal History: From the Creation of the World to the Beginning of the Eighteenth Century. Boston: Fetridge and Company. p. 284. 
  40. Baynes, Thomas Spencer (1833). "common era of the Incarnation" (1833). A. & C. Black. Retrieved 2011-05-18.  The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and General Literature. V (9 ed.). New York: Henry G. Allen and Company. 1833. p. 711. 
  41. Todd, James Henthorn (1864). "common era" "of the Nativity" (1864). Hodges, Smith & co. Retrieved 2011-05-18. It should be observed, however, that these years correspond to 492 and 493, a portion of the annals of Ulster being counted from the Incarnation, and being, therefore, one year before the common era of the Nativity of our Lord.  James Henthorn Todd (1864). St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland, A Memoir of his Life and Mission. Dublin: Hodges, Smith & Co, Publishers to the University. pp. 495, 496, 497. 
  42. "common era of the birth of Christ" (1812). printed by A.J. Valpy for T. Payne. 1812. Retrieved 2011-05-18.  Heneage Elsley (1812). Annotations on the Four Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles (2nd edition) (2nd ed.). London: A. J. Valpy for T. Payne. xvi. 
  43. C.f. every good Latin dictionary, e.g., perseus.tufts.edu, freedict.com, pons (English/German) Archived 2013-12-27 at the Wayback Machine., pons (German) or auxilium-online.net (German)
  44. "What is Thelema?". Retrieved 2011-05-18. 
  45. See, for example, the Society for Historical Archaeology states in its more recent style guide "Do not use C.E. (common era), B.P. (before present), or B.C.E.; convert these expressions to A.D. and B.C." (In section I 5 the Society explains how to use "years B.P." in connection with radiocarbon ages.) Society for Historical Archaeology (December 2006). "Style Guide" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-04-19. Retrieved 2017-01-16.  whereas the American Anthropological Association style guide takes a different approach calling for "C.E." and "B.C.E." American Anthropological Society (2009). "AAA Style Guide" (PDF). p. 3. Retrieved 2015-05-26. 
  46. "Submission Guidelines for The Ostracon". The Ostracon – Journal of the Egyptian Studies Society. Archived from the original on June 12, 2007. Retrieved 2011-05-18. For dates, please use the now-standard "BCE–CE" notation, rather than "BC–AD." Authors with strong religious preferences may use "BC–AD," however. 
  47. "Maryland Church News Submission Guide & Style Manual" (PDF). Maryland Church News. 1 April 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 June 2006. Retrieved 2011-05-18. 
  48. Gormley, Michael (24 April 2005). "Use of B.C. and A.D. faces changing times". Houston Chronicle. p. A–13. Retrieved 2011-05-18. 
  49. "AP: World History". Retrieved 2011-05-18. 
  50. "Jerusalem Timeline". History Channel. Archived from the original on May 20, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-18. ;"Jerusalem: Biographies". History Channel. Archived from the original on 2011-05-20. Retrieved 2011-05-18. 
  51. "AD and BC become CE/BCE". 9 February 2002. Archived from the original on December 20, 2011. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  52. "State School Board reverses itself on B.C./A.D. controversy". Family Foundation of Kentucky. Archived from the original on April 27, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-18. 
  53. Joe Biesk (15 June 2006). "School board keeps traditional historic designations". Louisville Courier-Journal. Archived from the original on 10 July 2009. Retrieved 2011-05-18. 
  54. "Kentucky Board of Education Report" (PDF). Kentucky Board of Education Report. 10 June 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 September 2006. Retrieved 2011-05-18. 
  55. "Australia goes all PC with a ban on BC: Birth of Jesus to be removed as reference point for dates in school history books". Daily Mail. London. 2 September 2011. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  56. "AD/BC rock solid in curriculum". The Age. Melbourne. 21 October 2011. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  57. Wilson, Kenneth G. (1993). The Columbia Guide to Standard American English – A.D., B.C., (A.)C.E., B.C.E. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-06989-2. Retrieved 2011-05-18. A.D. appears either before or after the number of the year... although conservative use has long preferred before only; B.C. always follows the number of the year.... Common era (C.E.) itself needs a good deal of further justification, in view of its clearly Christian numbering. Most conservatives still prefer A.D. and B.C. Best advice: don't use B.C.E., C.E., or A.C.E. to replace B.C. and A.D. without translating the new terms for the very large number of readers who will not understand them. Note too that if we do end by casting aside the A.D./B.C. convention, almost certainly some will argue that we ought to cast aside as well the conventional numbering system itself, given its Christian basis. 
  58. "Major Rule Changes in The Chicago Manual of Style, Fifteenth Edition". University of Chicago Press. 2003. Archived from the original on 9 September 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2015. Certain abbreviations traditionally set in small caps are now in full caps (AD, BCE, and the like), with small caps an option. 
  59. SBL Handbook of Style Society of Biblical Literature 1999 "8.1.2 ERAS – The preferred style is B.C.E. and C.E. (with periods). If you use A.D. and B.C., remember that A.D. precedes the date and B.C. follows it. (For the use of these abbreviations in titles, see § 7.1.3.2.)"

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