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Dṛṣṭiparāmarśa (P. diṭṭhiparāmāsa; T. lta ba mchog tu 'dzin pa ལྟ་བ་མཆོག་ཏུ་འཛིན་པ་; C. jianqu) is translated as "attachment to wrong views," "belief in ideological supremacy," etc.

Dṛṣṭiparāmarśa is identified in the Sanskrit tradition as the fourth of the five types of wrong view, where the first three types of wrong view are: 1) view of personal identity, 2) extreme views, and 3) wrong views. Dṛṣṭiparāmarśa is:

  • holding any of the first three types of wrong view as superior
  • and also holding the basis for those beliefs, the five perpetuating aggregates, superior.


The Khenjuk states:

Holding belief to be paramount means regarding the above three unwholesome beliefs[1] as well as the basis for those beliefs, the five perpetuating aggregates, as being paramount and sacred. It causes complete clinging to unwholesome belief.[2]

StudyBuddhism states:

Holding a deluded outlook as supreme (lta-ba mchog-tu ‘dzin-pa, an outlook of false supremacy) regards as supreme one of our deluded outlooks and the samsara-perpetuating aggregates based on which the deluded outlook is produced. Tsongkhapa specified that the outlook at which this disturbing, deluded discriminating awareness aims may be our deluded outlook of a transitory network, our extreme outlook, or our distorted outlook. According to Vasubandhu, this disturbing attitude may regard the samsara-perpetuating aggregates, based on which any of the above three deluded outlooks is produced, with the discordant attention that they are totally clean by nature or a source of true happiness.[3]

Alternate translations


  1. This refers to the fist three types of wrong view/belief.
  2. Mipham Rinpoche 2004, s.v. Chapter 1.
  3. Berzin, s.v. Mental factors.


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