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A dharma seal (Sanskrit: dharma uddhana) is a "standard" or "characteristic" used to determine if a doctrine is a Buddhist doctrine. There are three different versions of the dharma seals:
- Three seals (East Asian Buddhism): impermanence; no-self; nirvana.
- Three marks of existence (Theravada): impermanence; no-self; dukkha.
- Four seals (Tibetan Buddhism): impermanence; no-self; dukkha; nirvana.
- Nhất Hạnh, Thích (1998). The Heart of the Buddha's Teaching: Transforming Suffering Into Peace, Joy & Liberation : the Four Noble Truths, the Noble Eightfold Path, and Other Basic Buddhist Teachings. Broadway Books. ISBN 9780767903691.
- http://enkyojibuddhistnetwork.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/The-Three-Dharma-Seals-1.pdf (Thich Nhat Hanh)
|This article is developed by our editors based on the sources cited.|