Dhyāna

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Translations of
Dhyāna
Pali jhāna
Sanskrit dhyāna
Chinese
(PinyinCh’an)
Japanese
(rōmaji: Zen)
Korean
(RR: Seon)
Tibetan བསམ་གཏན
(samten; Wylie: bsam gtan)
Vietnamese Thiền
Paramita icon 125px.png
Dhyāna is one of the six (or ten)
Paramitas


Dhyāna (Sanskrit; Devanagari: ध्यान) or Jhāna (झान) (Pāli) refers to a state of meditation where awareness is fully absorbed in the object of attention. In this state the mind has become firm and stable and the ability to concentrate is greatly enhanced. The Buddha described four Jhanas, each of increasing depth.

The Zen tradition is named after this meditative state.

Jhāna in the early suttas

In the early texts, it is taught as a state of collected, full-body awareness in which mind becomes very powerful and still but not frozen, and is thus able to observe and gain insight into the changing flow of experience.[1][2] Later Theravada literature, in particular the Visuddhimagga, describes it as an abiding in which the mind becomes fully immersed and absorbed in the chosen object of attention,[3] characterized by non-dual consciousness.[4]

The Buddha himself entered jhāna, as described in the early texts, during his own quest for enlightenment, and is constantly seen in the suttas encouraging his disciples to develop jhāna as a way of achieving awakening and liberation.[5][6][7]

One key innovative teaching of the Buddha was that meditative absorption (jhāna) must be combined with liberating cognition.[8]

Just before his passing away, The Buddha entered the jhānas in direct and reverse order, and the passing away itself took place after rising from the fourth jhāna.[9]

The Buddha's instructions on attaining jhana are via mindfulness of breathing, found in the Ānāpānasati Sutta and elsewhere.

Stages of jhana

In the Pāli canon the Buddha describes eight progressive states of absorption meditation or jhāna. Four are considered to be meditations of form (rūpa jhāna) and four are formless meditations (arūpa jhāna). The first four jhānas are said by the Buddha to be conducive to a pleasant abiding and freedom from suffering.[10] The jhānas are states of meditation where the mind is free from the five hindrances — craving, aversion, sloth, agitation and doubt — and (from the second jhāna onwards) incapable of discursive thinking. The deeper jhānas can last for many hours. Jhāna empowers a meditator's mind, making it able to penetrate into the deepest truths of existence.

There are four deeper states of meditative absorption called "the immaterial attainments." Sometimes these are also referred to as the "formless" jhānas (arūpa jhānas) in distinction from the first four jhānas (rūpa jhānas). In the Buddhist canonical texts, the word "jhāna" is never explicitly used to denote them, but they are always mentioned in sequence after the first four jhānas. The enlightenment of complete dwelling in emptiness is reached when the eighth jhāna is transcended.

The Rupa Jhānas

There are four stages of deep collectedness which are called the Rupa Jhāna (Fine-material Jhāna):

  1. First Jhāna - In the first jhana there are - "directed thought, evaluation, rapture, pleasure, unification of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity & attention"
  2. Second Jhāna - In the second jhana there are - "internal assurance, rapture, pleasure, unification of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity, & attention"
  3. Third Jhāna - In the third jhana, there are - "equanimity-pleasure, unification of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity & attention"
  4. Fourth Jhāna - In the fourth jhana there are - "a feeling of equanimity, neither pleasure nor pain; an unconcern due to serenity of awareness; unification of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity & attention".[11]

The Arupa Jhānas

Beyond the four jhānas lie four attainments, referred to in the early texts as aruppas. These are also referred to in commentarial literature as immaterial/the formless jhānas (arūpajhānas), also translated as The Formless Dimensions:

  1. Dimension of Infinite Space - In the dimension of infinite space there are - "the perception of the dimension of the infinitude of space, unification of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity, & attention"
  2. Dimension of Infinite Consciousness - In the Dimension of infinite consciousness there are - "the perception of the dimension of the infinitude of consciousness, unification of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity, & attention"
  3. Dimension of Nothingness - In the dimension of nothingness, there are - "the perception of the dimension of nothingness, singleness of mind, contact, feeling, perception, intention, consciousness, desire, decision, persistence, mindfulness, equanimity, & attention"
  4. Dimension of Neither Perception nor Non-Perception - About the role of this jhana it is said: "He emerged mindfully from that attainment. On emerging mindfully from that attainment, he regarded the past qualities that had ceased & changed: 'So this is how these qualities, not having been, come into play. Having been, they vanish.' He remained unattracted & unrepelled with regard to those qualities, independent, detached, released, dissociated, with an awareness rid of barriers. He discerned that 'There is a further escape,' and pursuing it there really was for him." [11]

In the suttas, these are never referred to as jhānas. And it is mistakenly believed that is likely that they belonged to the Brahmanical tradition.[12] However, according to the early scriptures, the Buddha did not say he learned the last two formless attainments from two teachers, he only mentioned that Alara Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta claimed.[13] If the Buddha was taught these two states as they declared then he should have practiced the First Jhana many times and should have no trouble entering the First Jhana. The Uppakilesa Sutta shows that this is not the case. The Buddha had to struggle with a whole series of obstacles before he was able to find his way back into the First Jhana that he recalled practicing as a child. When looking into the Uppakilesa Sutta, it is clear that Alara and Uddaka overestimated themselves in their claims.[14] At that time, defilement such as desire and other hindrances were still present within the future Buddha even after following their teachings. He realized that the meditations they taught and their teachings do not lead to Nirvana and left. [15]

The Buddha said in the Ariyapariyesana Sutta:

”But the thought occurred to me, ‘This Dhamma leads not to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to stilling, to direct knowledge, to Awakening, nor to Unbinding, but only to reappearance in the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception.’ So, dissatisfied with that Dhamma, I left.”[16]

Cessation of feelings and perceptions

The Buddha also rediscovered an attainment beyond the dimension of neither perception nor non-perception, the "cessation of feelings and perceptions." This is sometimes called the "ninth jhāna" in commentarial and scholarly literature.[13][17]

About this, it is said: "Seeing with discernment, his fermentations were totally ended. He emerged mindfully from that attainment. On emerging mindfully from that attainment, he regarded the past qualities that had ceased & changed: 'So this is how these qualities, not having been, come into play. Having been, they vanish.' He remained unattracted & unrepelled with regard to those qualities, independent, detached, released, dissociated, with an awareness rid of barriers. He discerned that 'There is no further escape,' and pursuing it there really wasn't for him."[11]

Someone attaining this state is an anagami or an arahant.[18] In the above extract, the Buddha narrates that Sariputta became an arahant upon reaching it.[19]

Usage of jhana

The meditator uses the jhāna state to strengthen and sharpen the mind, in order to investigate the true nature of phenomena (dhamma) and to gain higher knowledge. The longer the meditator stays in the state of jhāna the sharper and more powerful the mind becomes. The jhāna will sometimes cause the five hindrances to be suppressed for days.[20]

According to the later Theravāda commentorial tradition as outlined by Buddhagoṣa in his Visuddhimagga, after coming out of the state of jhāna the meditator will be in the state of post-jhāna access concentration. This will have the qualities of being certain, long-lasting and stable. It is where the work of investigation and analysis of the true nature of phenomena begins and is also where deep insight into the characteristics of impermanence, suffering and not-self arises. The meditator can experience these truths, which lie at the heart of the Buddha's teachings, through direct experience.

In contrast, according to the sutta descriptions of jhāna practice, the meditator does not emerge from jhāna to practice vipassana but rather the work of insight is done whilst in jhāna itself. In particular the meditator is instructed to "enter and remain in the fourth jhāna" before commencing the work of insight in order to uproot the mental defilements.[1][21]

With the abandoning of pleasure and pain — as with the earlier disappearance of elation and distress — he enters and remains in the fourth jhāna: purity of equanimity and mindfulness, neither-pleasure nor pain...With his mind thus concentrated, purified, and bright, unblemished, free from defects, pliant, malleable, steady, and attained to imperturbability, the monk directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the ending of the mental fermentations. He discerns, as it has come to be, that 'This is suffering... This is the origination of suffering... This is the cessation of suffering... This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering... These are mental fermentations... This is the origination of fermentations... This is the cessation of fermentations... This is the way leading to the cessation of fermentations.'

— Samaññaphala Sutta

As the five hindrances may be suppressed for days after entering jhāna, the meditator will feel perfectly clear, mindful, full of compassion, peaceful and light after the meditation session. This, according to Ajahn Brahm, may cause some meditators to mistakenly assume that they have gained enlightenment.[20]

The jhāna state cannot by itself lead to enlightenment as it only suppresses the defilements. Meditators must use the jhāna state as an instrument for developing wisdom by cultivating insight and use it to penetrate the true nature of phenomena through direct cognition, which will lead to cutting off the defilements and nibbana.

Jhānas are normally described according to the nature of the mental factors which are present in these states:

  1. Movement of the mind onto the object (vitakka; Sanskrit: vitarka)
  2. Retention of the mind on the object (vicāra)
  3. Joy (pīti; Sanskrit: prīti)
  4. Happiness (sukha)
  5. Equanimity (upekkhā; Sanskrit: upekṣā)
  6. One-pointedness (ekaggatā; Sanskrit: ekāgratā)[22]

Four progressive states of Jhāna:

  1. First jhāna (vitakka, vicāra, pīti, sukha, ekaggatā): The five hindrances have completely disappeared and intense unified bliss remains. Only the subtlest of mental movement remains, perceivable in its absence by those who have entered the second jhāna. The ability to form unwholesome intentions ceases.
  2. Second jhāna (pīti, sukha, ekaggatā): All mental movement utterly ceases. There is only bliss. The ability to form wholesome intentions ceases as well.
  3. Third jhāna (sukha, ekaggatā): One-half of bliss (joy) disappears.
  4. Fourth jhāna (upekkhā, ekaggatā): The other half of bliss (happiness) disappears, leading to a state with neither pleasure nor pain, which the Buddha said is actually a subtle form of happiness (more sublime than pīti and sukha). The Buddha described the jhānas as "the footsteps of the Tathāgata". The breath is said to cease temporarily in this state.

Traditionally, this fourth jhāna is seen as the beginning of attaining psychic powers (abhigna).[23]

The scriptures state that one should not seek to attain ever higher jhānas but master one first, then move on to the next. Mastery of jhāna involves being able to enter a jhāna at will, stay as long as one likes, leave at will and experience each of the jhāna factors as required. They also seem to suggest that lower jhāna factors may manifest themselves in higher jhāna, if the jhānas have not been properly developed. The Buddha is seen to advise his disciples to concentrate and steady the jhāna further.

Preliminary stage

The Buddha explains right concentration (samma samādhi), part of the noble eightfold path, as the four first jhānas. According to the Pāli canon commentary, there is a certain stage of meditation that the meditator should reach before entering into jhāna. This stage is access/neighbourhood concentration (upacāra-samādhi). The overcoming of the five hindrances — sensual desire, ill will, sloth and torpor, restlessness and worry and doubt — marked the entries into access concentration. This concentration is an unstable state where the mind becomes well concentrated on an object but it is still not yet a state of "full concentration" (jhāna). The difference is, in full concentration certain factors become strengthened to such a degree that they bring about a qualitative shift in the level of consciousness and the mind no longer functions on the ordinary sensory level. Access concentration is not mentioned in the discourses of the Buddha. However there are several suttas where a person gains insight into the Dhamma on hearing a teaching from the Buddha. Often their minds are described as being free from hindrances when this occurs and some have identified this as being a type of access concentration.[24] The equivalent of upacāra-samādhi used in Tibetan commentaries is nyer-bsdogs.[25]

At the state of access concentration, some meditators may experience vivid mental imagery (Pāli: nimitta), which is similar to a vivid dream — as vividly as if seen by the eye, but in this case the meditator is fully aware and conscious that they are seeing mental images. This is discussed in the early texts, and expanded upon in Theravāda commentaries.[26]

Different meditators will experience different mental images; some meditators may not experience any mental images at all. The same meditator doing multiple meditation sessions may experience different mental images for each session. The mental image may be pleasant, frightening, disgusting, shocking or neutral.

As the concentration becomes stronger, the feelings of breathing and of having a physical body will completely disappear, leaving only pure awareness. At this stage inexperienced meditators may become afraid, thinking that they are going to die if they continue the concentration because the feeling of breathing and the feeling of having a physical body has completely disappeared. They should not be so afraid and should continue their concentration in order to reach "full concentration" (jhāna).[27]

Mastering jhāna

A meditator should first master the lower jhānas, before they can go into the higher jhānas. There are five aspects of jhāna mastery:

  1. Mastery in adverting: the ability to advert[clarification needed] to the jhāna factors one by one after emerging from the jhāna, wherever he wants, whenever he wants, and for as long as he wants.
  2. Mastery in attaining: the ability to enter upon jhāna quickly.
  3. Mastery in resolving: the ability to remain in the jhāna for exactly the pre-determined length of time.
  4. Mastery in emerging: the ability to emerge from jhāna quickly without difficulty.
  5. Mastery in reviewing: the ability to review the jhāna and its factors with retrospective knowledge immediately after adverting to them.

The early suttas state that "the most exquisite of recluses" is able to attain any of the jhānas and abide in them without difficulty. This particular arahant is "liberated in both ways:" he is fluent in attaining the jhānas and is also aware of their ultimate unsatisfactoriness. If he were not, he would fall into the same problem as the teachers from whom the Buddha learned the spheres of nothingness and neither perception nor non-perception, in seeing these meditative attainments as something final. Their problem lay in seeing permanence where there is impermanence.[28]

In Mahāyāna traditions

Mahāyāna Buddhism includes numerous schools of practice, which each draw upon various Buddhist sūtras, philosophical treatises, and commentaries. Accordingly, each school has its own meditation methods for the purpose of developing samādhi and prajñā, with the goal of ultimately attaining enlightenment. Nevertheless, each has its own emphasis, mode of expression, and philosophical outlook. In his classic book on meditation of the various Chinese Buddhist traditions, Charles Luk writes, "The Buddha Dharma is useless if it is not put into actual practice, because if we do not have personal experience of it, it will be alien to us and we will never awaken to it in spite of our book learning."[29] Venerable Nan Huaijin echoes similar sentiments about the importance of meditation by remarking, "Intellectual reasoning is just another spinning of the sixth consciousness, whereas the practice of meditation is the true entry into the Dharma."[30] Therefore, the importance of dhyāna in the broad sense of "meditation" in the Mahāyāna tradition is indeed emphasized.

In China, the word "dhyāna" was originally transliterated as chánnà (禪那), and shortened to just chán (禪) by common usage. This word chán is the same word used for the Chán school (Jp. Zen). Some scholars and various authors have claimed that Chán/Zen Buddhism does not utilize the stages of dhyāna.[31][32] However, this is contradicted by statements from well known exponents of Chán Buddhism such as Venerable Sheng Yen, Venerable Hsuan Hua, and Venerable Nan Huaijin.[33][34][35] Sheng Yen, a Buddhist monk and scholar from the Linji and Caodong lineages of the Chán school, clarifies that the Chán/Zen school does indeed include the dhyānas:[33]

Although the Chán school definitely advocates practicing meditation to reach absorption states (dhyāna), not all meditative absorption states are those of the Chán school.

Sheng Yen also cites meditative concentration as necessary, citing samādhi as one of the requisite factors for progress on the path toward enlightenment.[33] Nan Huaijin also agrees about the dhyanas being necessary in Chán Buddhism, and regarding the various stages, he states, "Real cultivation going toward samādhi goes through the four dhyānas."[35] Sheng Yen clarifies that the eight dhyānas are to be understood as mundane meditative states, which are also shared by practitioners on "outer paths", as well as ordinary people, or in principle even animals.[33] He characterizes these as intermediate steps for supramundane realization in dhyāna.[36]

In the Platform Sutra, Hui Neng says : "To concentrate the mind and to contemplate it until it is still is a disease and not Zen." He goes on to say that the meditator who enters a state in which thoughts are suppressed must allow them to arise naturally once again.[37] The early Buddhist texts describe right concentration, that is, dhyāna, as an abiding in which the mind is unified, but not static; it is not the suppression of all thought.[1]

Venerable Hsuan Hua, who taught Chán and Pure Land Buddhism, outlines the four preliminary stages of dhyāna:[34]

  1. In the First Dhyāna, there is the arising of bliss. The external breathing stops, while the internal breathing comes alive, and it is said that the mind is as clear as water and as bright as a mirror.[38] When the external breathing stops, the nose and mouth do not breathe.[39] While in this state, the mind and body have a feeling of existing within empty space.[40]
  2. In the Second Dhyāna, there is pure bliss born from samādhi. In this stage, there is said to be happiness without compare. After reaching this stage, it is said that some practitioners may go without food or water for many days and still be alright. When in this second stage, not only does the external breathing stop, but the pulse comes to a stop as well. After leaving this state, the pulse resumes its normal function.[41]
  3. In the Third Dhyāna, the joy of the previous stages is left, leaving only a subtle and blissful peace.[42] At this stage it is said that not only do the breathing and pulse stop, but idle thoughts stop as well.[43] Although idle thoughts have been cleared away, it is emphasized that this stage is nothing special, and just part of the progression.[43] At this stage, the body becomes as soft as the body of an infant.[44] Softness and suppleness of the body is considered to be a physical indicator of the quality of an individual's samādhi. Nan Huaijin states: "All the eminent monks of great virtue in the past were able to predict what day they would die, and even on the brink of death their bodies were as soft and supple as a baby's. Others who were even more lofty turned into a field of light, and their human forms disappeared. At most all they left behind were a few pieces of fingernail, or a lock of hair as a memento."[44]
  4. In the Fourth Dhyāna, the only manifestation is that of complete purity and perfection.[43] At this stage one is still considered the stage of an ordinary mortal, and still far from the Nirvāṇa of the fully enlightened buddhas.[45] In the tradition of Chinese Buddhism, it is said that those individuals who have reached this stage sometimes choose to walk with their feet one inch above the earth, so they do not harm any living beings.[45]

In Vajrayāna traditions

B. Alan Wallace holds that modern Tibetan Buddhism lacks emphasis on achieving levels of concentration higher than access concentration.[46][47] According to Wallace, one possible explanation for this situation is that virtually all Tibetan Buddhist meditators seek to become enlightened through the use of tantric practices. These require the presence of sense desire and passion in one's consciousness, but jhāna effectively inhibits these phenomena.[46] While few Tibetan Buddhists, either inside or outside Tibet, devote themselves to the practice of concentration, Tibetan Buddhist literature does provide extensive instructions on it, and great Tibetan meditators of earlier times stressed its importance.[48] All this being said, Wallace has translated and commented on Tsongkapa's Stages of the Path, a Tibetan classic on this topic, in his book Balancing the Mind. It is a very intricate guide on mastering equanimity and insight during meditation, both of which are claimed to be required to advance up the jhanas.

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Richard Shankman, The Experience of Samadhi - an in depth Exploration of Buddhist Meditation, Shambala publications 2008
  2. "Should we come out of Jhana to practice vipassana?" (PDF). Venerable Henepola Gunaratana. 
  3. "Jhana". Access to Insight. Retrieved 2007-12-03. 
  4. Ajahn Brahm, Mindfulness, Bliss, and Beyond. Wisdom Publications 2006, page 156.
  5. "A Sketch of the Buddha's Life". Access to Insight. Retrieved 2007-12-03. 
  6. Henepola Gunaratana. "The Jhanas". Buddhist Publication Society. Retrieved 2007-12-03. 
  7. In the Pali Canon, the instruction on jhana is contained in suttas MN119, AN 1.16, MN118, MN4, MN19, MN36, MN43,MN45, MN64, MN65, MN66, MN76, MN77, MN78, MN79, MN85, MN105, MN107, MN108, MN119, MN125, MN138, MN152, AN2.2, AN3.6, AN3.7, AN3.8, DN1, DN2, MN94, MN100, MN101, MN111, MN112, MN122, MN139 & MN141. This list is not exhaustive.
  8. Alexander Wynne, The Origin of Buddhist Meditation. Routledge, 2007, page 73.
  9. Sister Vajira & Francis Story. "Maha-parinibbana Sutta". Buddhist Publication Society. Retrieved 2007-12-03. 
  10. DN 22
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 as stated by Buddha Gotama in the Anuppada Sutta, MN#111
  12. John J. Holder, Early Buddhist Discourses. Hackett Publishing Company, 2006, page xi.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Steven Sutcliffe, Religion: Empirical Studies. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2004, page 135.
  14. Mindfulness, Bliss, and Beyond: A Meditator's Handbook. (2006). Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-275-7.
  15. Nanamoli Bhikkhu, The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha. Wisdom Publications,1995, page 1070.
  16. Nanamoli, Bhikkhu (trans.) (1995, ed. Bhikkhu Bodhi). The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha: A New Translation of the Majjhima Nikaya. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-072-X.
  17. Chandima Wijebandara, Early Buddhism, Its Religious and Intellectual Milieu. Postgraduate Institute of Pali and Buddhist Studies, University of Kelaniya, 1993, page 22..
  18. Peter Harvey, An Introduction to Buddhism. Cambridge University Press, 1990, page 252.
  19. Thanissaro Bhikkhu's commentary on the Anuppada Sutta, MN#111
  20. 20.0 20.1 Ajahn Brahmavamso. "Deep Insight". BuddhaSasana. Retrieved 2009-03-23. 
  21. "Samaññaphala Sutta". 
  22. In the Suttapitaka, right concentration is often referred to as having five factors, with one-pointedness (ekaggatā) not being explicitly identified as a factor of jhana attainment (see, for instance, SN 28.1-4, AN 4.41, AN 5.28).
  23. For instance in AN 5.28, the Buddha states (Thanissaro, 1997.):

    When a monk has developed and pursued the five-factored noble right concentration in this way, then whichever of the six higher knowledges he turns his mind to know and realize, he can witness them for himself whenever there is an opening....

    If he wants, he wields manifold supranormal powers. Having been one he becomes many; having been many he becomes one. He appears. He vanishes. He goes unimpeded through walls, ramparts, and mountains as if through space. He dives in and out of the earth as if it were water. He walks on water without sinking as if it were dry land. Sitting crosslegged he flies through the air like a winged bird. With his hand he touches and strokes even the sun and moon, so mighty and powerful. He exercises influence with his body even as far as the Brahma worlds. He can witness this for himself whenever there is an opening ...

  24. Peter Harvey, Consciousness Mysticism in the Discourses of the Buddha. In Karel Werner, ed., The Yogi and the Mystic. Curzon Press 1989, page 95. He finds access concentration described at Digha Nikaya I, 110, among other places. "The situation at D I, 110, then, can be seen as one where the hearer of a discourse enters a state which, while not an actual jhana, could be bordering on it. As it is free from hindrances, it could be seen as 'access' concentration with a degree of wisdom." See also Peter Harvey, The Selfless Mind, page 170.
  25. B. Alan Wallace, The bridge of quiescence: experiencing Tibetan Buddhist meditation. Carus Publishing Company, 1998, page 92. Wallace translates both as "the first proximate meditative stabilization".
  26. Tse-fu Kuan, Mindfulness in Early Buddhism: New Approaches Through Psychology and Textual Analysis of Pali, Chinese and Sanskrit Sources. Routledge, 2008, pages 65-67.
  27. Venerable Sujivo, Access and Fixed Concentration. Vipassana Tribune, Vol 4 No 2, July 1996, Buddhist Wisdom Centre, Malaysia. Available here.
  28. Nathan Katz, Buddhist Images of Human Perfection: The Arahant of the Sutta Piṭaka Compared with the Bodhisattva and the Mahāsiddha. Motilal Banarsidass, 1990, page 78.
  29. Luk, Charles. The Secrets of Chinese Meditation. 1964. p. 11
  30. Nan, Huai-Chin. To Realize Enlightenment: Practice of the Cultivation Path. 1994. p. 1
  31. Peter N. Gregory, Traditions of Meditation in Chinese Buddhism. University of Hawaii Press, 1986, page 27.
  32. B. Alan Wallace, The Attention Revolution: Unlocking the Power of the Focused Mind. Wisdom Publications, 2006, page xii.[1]
  33. 33.0 33.1 33.2 33.3 Sheng Yen. Orthodox Chinese Buddhism. North Atlantic Books. 2007. p. 122
  34. 34.0 34.1 Hsuan Hua. The Chan Handbook. 2004. p. 85
  35. 35.0 35.1 Nan, Huai-Chin. Diamond Sutra Explained. 2004. p. 60
  36. Sheng Yen. Orthodox Chinese Buddhism. North Atlantic Books. 2007. pp. 122-124
  37. Roderick S. Bucknell and Martin Stuart-Fox, The Twilight Language: Explorations in Buddhist Meditation and Symbolism. Routledge, 1995, pages 49-50.
  38. Hsuan Hua. The Chan Handbook. 2004. pp. 85-86
  39. Hsuan Hua. The Chan Handbook. 2004. p. 44
  40. Nan, Huai-Chin. Working Toward Enlightenment: The Cultivation of Practice. 1993. p. 132
  41. Hsuan Hua. The Chan Handbook. 2004. p. 86
  42. Hsuan Hua. The Chan Handbook. 2004. pp. 86-87
  43. 43.0 43.1 43.2 Hsuan Hua. The Chan Handbook. 2004. p. 87
  44. 44.0 44.1 Nan, Huai-Chin. Working Toward Enlightenment: The Cultivation of Practice. 1993. p. 135
  45. 45.0 45.1 Hsuan Hua. The Chan Handbook. 2004. p. 88
  46. 46.0 46.1 B. Alan Wallace, The bridge of quiescence: experiencing Tibetan Buddhist meditation. Carus Publishing Company, 1998, pages 215-216.
  47. Study and Practice of Meditation: Tibetan Interpretations of the Concentrations and Formless Absorptions by Leah Zahler. Snow Lion Publications: 2009 pg 264-5
  48. B. Alan Wallace, The Attention Revolution: Unlocking the Power of the Focused Mind. Wisdom Publications, 2006, page xii.


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