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Dristi (Sanskrit, also dṛiṣṭi; Pali diṭṭhi; Tibetan: 'lta ba) - is translated as "wrong view", "afflicted views", "belief", "opinionatedness", "deluded outlooks", etc. It is defined as seeing wrongly; it's characteristic is unwise interpretation of things.[1]

Dristi is identified in the following contexts within the Buddhist teachings:



Bhikku Bodhi states:

Diṭṭhi here means seeing wrongly. Its characteristic is unwise (unjustified) interpretation of things. Its function is to preassume. It is manifested as a wrong interpretation or belief. Its proximate cause is unwillingness to see the noble ones (ariya), and so on.[2]

Nina van Gorkom explains:

What is wrong view? It is a distorted view of realities, a misinterpretation of them. Do we, for example, know hearing as only an element which hears or do we still cling to an idea of self who hears? Do we know sound as it is, as only a reality which can be heard, or do we take what is heard for a "person" or a "thing" such as a voice or a car? Person, voice and car are concepts we can think of but which cannot be heard. Hearing and thinking occur at different moments and these realities experience different objects. Only one object can be experienced at a time through the appropriate doorway, but we still have many misunderstandings about reality. Through the study of the Dhamma we may have acquired theoretical understanding of realities as being impermanent and non-self, but wrong view cannot be eradicated through theoretical understanding. It can only be eradicated through the practice, through the development of the eightfold Path.[3]

The Atthasalini (II, Part IX, Chapter I, 248) gives the following definition of wrong view, ditthi:

... It has unwise conviction as characteristic; perversion as function; wrong conviction as manifestation; the desire not to see the ariyans as proximate cause. It should be regarded as the highest fault.[3]

The Atthasalini (II, Part IX, Chapter II, 253) also states:

... From being not the right path, it is a "wrong path". For just as one who is gone astray, although he holds that this is the path to such a village, does not arrive at a village, so a man of false opinions, although he holds that this is the path to a happy destiny, cannot get there; hence from being not the right path it is a wrong path...[3]


The Khenjuk states:

  • Tib. ལྟ་བ་(ནི་ཤེས་རབ་)ཉོན་མོངས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་ལྟ་བ་སྟེ། ལྟ་བ་ངན་པ་ཐམས་ཅད་ཀྱི་རྟེན་བྱེད་པའོ།[4]
  • Beliefs are all the views of afflicted wisdom. They form the support for all unwholesome beliefs. (Rigpa Translations)
  • Belief is the view of all kinds of disturbed [discrimination]. It forms the support for all unwholesome beliefs. (Erik Pema Kunsang)

StudyBuddhism states:

Deluded outlooks view their objects in a certain way. They seek and regard their objects as things to latch on to (yul-‘tshol-ba), without they themselves scrutinizing, analyzing, or investigating them. In other words, they merely have an attitude toward their objects. They occur only during conceptual cognition and are accompanied by either an interpolation or a repudiation. As mental factors, however, they themselves do not interpolate or repudiate anything.[5]

Alternative Translations

  • wrong view
  • beliefs
  • opinionatedness
  • defiled view (Padmakara)
  • afflicted view

See also


  1. Bhikku Bodhi (2012), Kindle loc. 2288.
  2. Bhikku Bodhi (2012), Kindle Location 2288
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Gorkom (1999), Wrong View (ditthi)
  4. Supplemented with Khenpo Nuden.
  5. * Berzin, Alexander, Primary Minds and the Fifty-one Mental Factors


  • Bhikkhu Bodhi (2012). A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma: The Abhidhammattha Sangaha. BPS Pariyatti Editions. Kindle Edition.
  • Guenther, Herbert V. & Leslie S. Kawamura (1975), Mind in Buddhist Psychology: A Translation of Ye-shes rgyal-mtshan's "The Necklace of Clear Understanding" Dharma Publishing. Kindle Edition.
  • Kunsang, Erik Pema (translator) (2004). Gateway to Knowledge, Vol. 1. North Atlantic Books.

External links