Edward Conze

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Eberhart (Edward) Julius Dietrich Conze (1904 – September 24, 1979) was an Anglo-German scholar probably best known for his pioneering translations of Buddhist texts.

Life and work

Conze was born in London of mixed German, French, and Dutch ancestry. His father belonged to the German landed aristocracy, and his mother to what he himself would have called the "plutocracy". His background was Protestant, though his mother became a Roman Catholic in later life. He seems to have had a rather difficult relationship with his mother. Conze claimed to be related to Friedrich Engels.

He was born in England because his father happened to be posted there as German Vice-Consul, but this meant that he had British nationality. He was educated at various German universities, graduating with a Ph.D. from the University of Cologne in 1928, he then proceeded to carry out post doctoral studies in comparative European and Indian Philosophy at the University of Bonn and the University of Hamburg. Conze had a talent for learning languages and picked up fourteen of them, including Sanskrit, by age 24. Like some other Europeans, he came into contact with Theosophy early in life. He also took up astrology, and remained a keen astrologer throughout his life. While still a young man, he wrote a substantial book called The Principle of Contradiction.

Conze opposed Hitler's rise to power, joining the Communist Party and seriously studying Marxist thought. For a while he was the leader of the communist movement in Bonn, and his autobiography, Memoirs of a Modern Gnostic, talks about organizing communist street gangs in Hamburg, which briefly put his life in danger.

In 1933 he came to England, having earlier taken the precaution of renewing his British nationality, and he arrived at the age of 29, virtually without money or possessions. He supported himself by teaching German and taking evening classes, and he became a member of the Labour Party. He met many prominent figures and intellectuals in the Labour movement and was not impressed. However, Secretary of State for Education, Chair of the Labour Party and MP Ellen Wilkinson did impress him, and the two later published two books together entitled Why War? and Why Fascism?.

Conze became very active in the socialist movement in Britain, lecturing and writing books and pamphlets, until eventually becoming disillusioned with politics. At 35 he found himself in a state of intellectual turmoil and collapse. Even his marriage had failed. Indeed, in his memoirs he admits "I am one of those unfortunate people who can neither live with women nor without them."

From 1933 until 1960 he lectured in psychology, philosophy and comparative religion at the University of London and the University of Oxford. Between 1963 and 1973 he held a number of academic appointments in England, Germany and the United States, including a significant amount of time as a Visiting Professor in the Department of Religious Studies at the University of Lancaster.

At this point he discovered – or rather rediscovered – Buddhism. When 13 years old he had read Gleanings in Buddha Fields by Lafcadio Hearn. However, Conze's first significant contact with Buddhism was at this midpoint in his life, at the beginning of the Second World War, through the writings of D.T. Suzuki. Conze was a student of Max Walleser (1874-1954), an Indologist, Tibetologist and Sinologist who lectured at Heidelberg University.

Once intrigued, Conze devoted the rest of his life to Buddhism, and in particular to translating the Prajnaparamita or Perfection of Wisdom sutras, which are the fundamental scriptures of Mahayana Buddhism. In these transactions he was inspired by the work of his teacher Walleser who published his own study on the Prajnaparamita: Prajñápáramitá, Die vollkommenheit der erkenntnis, nach indischen, tibetischen und chinesischen quellen (1914). However, he wasn't just a scholar in the academic sense. During the war he lived on his own in a caravan in the New Forest and practised meditation, following very seriously the instructions given by Buddhaghosa in the Visuddhimagga, and allegedly achieving some degree of meditative experience. Being brutally honest, especially about himself, he would confess in his later lectures in America that he was just a Buddhist scholar and not a monk and therefore people should not be disappointed if his actions and behaviors did not live up to the Buddhist ideal. Reflective of Conze's prominent position as a Buddhist is the fact that he served as vice president of the Buddhist Society.

After the war he moved to Oxford and remarried. In 1951 he published Buddhism: Its Essence and Development, a very successful book, which is still in print. However, his real achievement over the following twenty years was to translate over thirty texts comprising the Prajnaparamita sutras, including two of the most well-known of all Buddhist texts, the Diamond Sutra and the Heart Sutra.

In the 1960s and '70s he met with university students of Buddhism in Canada and lectured at several universities in the United States; he was appreciated by his students. However, he was very outspoken, and gained the disapproval of the university authorities and some of his colleagues. With the combination of his Communist past and his candid criticism of American involvement in Vietnam, he was eventually obliged to leave. He died on September 24, 1979 in the Yeovil General Hospital (Sherborne, Dorset).


Conze was a Middle European intellectual refugee, fleeing from Germany before the war like many others. However, he wasn't representative of the dominant strains in 20th-century intellectual life, being very critical of many trends in modern thought. He was a self-confessed elitist. Indeed, he entitled his autobiography Memoirs of a Modern Gnostic, believing as he did that Gnosticism was essentially elitist. Neither did he approve of democracy or feminism.[1]

He is certainly representative of a Western pre-war generation that became disillusioned with Marxism, especially in its Soviet form. Where he differed from others was in the fact that he did not really lose religious beliefs. He transferred his idealism from politics to Buddhism.[2]

Dr. Conze has been called "the foremost Western scholar of the Prajnaparamita literature."[3] It is especially significant that as a scholar of Buddhism he also tried to practice it, especially meditation. This was very unusual at the time he started his work, and he was regarded as eccentric in the 1940s and 1950s – objective scholars were not supposed to have any personal involvement in their subject. He was hence a forerunner of a new strain of Western scholars in Buddhism who are practicing Buddhists.


  • Why War? (1934) - with Ellen Wilkinson
  • Why Fascism? (1934) - with Ellen Wilkinson
  • The Scientific Method of Thinking: An Introduction to Dialectical Materialism (1935)
  • An Introduction to Dialectical Materialism (1936)
  • Spain To-day: Revolution and Counter Revolution (1936)
  • Contradiction and Reality: A Summary (1939)
  • Buddhism: Its Essence and Development (1951)
  • Abhisamayālaṅkāra (1954)
  • Selected Sayings from the Perfection of Wisdom (1955)
  • The Buddha's Law Among the Birds (1956)
  • Buddhist Meditation (1956 & 1972)
  • Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā (1957)
  • Perfection of Wisdom in 8,000 Lines and its Verse Summary (1958)
  • A Short History of Buddhism (1958)
  • Buddhist Scriptures (1959)
  • The Prajñāpāramitā Literature (1960)
  • The Large Sutra on Perfect Wisdom with divisions of Abhisamayālaṅkāra (1961)
  • Gilgit Manuscript of Aṣṭādaśasāhasrikāprajñāpāramitā (1962)
  • Buddhist Thought in India: Three Phases of Buddhist Philosophy (1962)
  • Materials for a Dictionary of the Prajñāpāramitā Literature (1967)
  • Thirty Years of Buddhist Studies: Selected Essays (1967)
  • The Short Prajñāpāramitā Texts (1974)
  • Further Buddhist Studies: Selected Essays (1975)
  • The Memoirs of A Modern Gnostic (1979)
  • Buddhism. A Short History (1980)


  1. Memoirs of a Modern Gnostic Part II pg 2; Part I pg 27; Part II pgs 109-110
  2. "Memoirs of a Modern Gnostic Part I pg 37". www.conze.elbrecht.com. 
  3. Nattier 1992, pg. 166


  • Sangharakshita (1996). Great Buddhists of the Twentieth Century. Windhorse Publications. ISBN 0-904766-80-2. 
  • Edward Conze, The Memoirs of a Modern Gnostic, Part 1 & 2; 1979
  • De Jong, J. W. (April 1980). "Obituary: Edward Conze 1904–1979". Indo-Iranian Journal. Springer. 22 (2): 143–146. doi:10.1163/000000080790080729. 
  • Humphreys, Christmas (February 1980). "Dr. Edward Conze, 1904–1979 (Obituary)". The Middle Way. London: The Buddhist Society. 54 (4): 229–231. 
  • Nattier, Jan. The Heart Sutra: A Chinese Apocryphal Text?. Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies Vol. 15 Nbr. 2 (1992)

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Masao Abe Robert Baker Aitken Ron Allen (playwright) B. R. Ambedkar Ananda
Balangoda Ananda Maitreya Thero Angulimala Aniruddha Mahathera Anuruddha Nauyane Ariyadhamma Mahathera
Aryadeva Asai Ryōi Assaji Atiśa Nisthananda Bajracharya
Benimadhab Barua Joko Beck Sanjaya Belatthiputta Charles Henry Allan Bennett Hubert Benoit (psychotherapist)
John Blofeld Bodhidharma Edward Espe Brown Polwatte Buddhadatta Thera Buddhaghosa
Acharya Buddharakkhita Marie Byles Ajahn Chah Rerukane Chandawimala Thero Channa
Chokgyur Lingpa Edward Conze L. S. Cousins Brian Cutillo 1st Dalai Lama
2nd Dalai Lama 3rd Dalai Lama 4th Dalai Lama 5th Dalai Lama 6th Dalai Lama
7th Dalai Lama 8th Dalai Lama 9th Dalai Lama 10th Dalai Lama 11th Dalai Lama
12th Dalai Lama 13th Dalai Lama Bidia Dandaron Alexandra David-Néel Marian Derby
Devadatta U Dhammaloka K. Sri Dhammananda Dharmaditya Dharmacharya Dharmakirti
Dharmapala of Nalanda Anagarika Dharmapala Dharmottara Dignāga Dōgen
Dongchu Dongshan Liangjie Khakyab Dorje, 15th Karmapa Lama Rangjung Rigpe Dorje, 16th Karmapa Rangjung Dorje, 3rd Karmapa Lama
Heinrich Dumoulin Düsum Khyenpa, 1st Karmapa Lama Dzongsar Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö Walter Evans-Wentz Family of Gautama Buddha
Frederick Franck Gampopa Gelek Rimpoche Gö Lotsawa Zhönnu-pel Gorampa
Maha Pajapati Mahapajapati Mahapajapati Gotami Rita Gross Gurulugomi
Phagmo Drupa Dorje Gyalpo Tsangpa Gyare Gendun Gyatso Palzangpo Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso Dolpopa
Dolpopa Sherab Gyaltsen Gyeongbong Han Yong-un Thich Nhat Hanh Walisinghe Harischandra
Eugen Herrigel Ernő Hetényi Marie Musaeus Higgins Raicho Hiratsuka Shin'ichi Hisamatsu
Hsuan Hua Huiyuan (Buddhist) Christmas Humphreys K. N. Jayatilleke 2nd Jebtsundamba Khutughtu
9th Jebtsundamba Khutughtu Jeongang Kadawedduwe Jinavamsa Mahathera Ken Jones (Buddhist) David Kalupahana
Dainin Katagiri Katyayana (Buddhist) Bob Kaufman Kaundinya Jack Kerouac
Bogd Khan Khema Ayya Khema Dilgo Khentse Dilgo Khyentse
King Suppabuddha Jamgon Kongtrul Kukkuripa Kumar Kashyap Mahasthavir Kunkhyen Pema Karpo
Drukpa Kunley Trevor Leggett Arthur Lillie Karma Lingpa Robert Linssen
Longchenpa John Daido Loori Albert Low Luipa Taizan Maezumi
Mahakasyapa Mahākāśyapa Mahamoggallana Mahasi Sayadaw Jyotipala Mahathera
Nagasena Mahathera S. Mahinda Gunapala Piyasena Malalasekera Marpa Lotsawa Peter Matthiessen
Maudgalyayana Maya (mother of Buddha) Maya (mother of the Buddha) Gustav Meyrink Edward Salim Michael
Milarepa Mingun Sayadaw Sōkō Morinaga Hiroshi Motoyama Mun Bhuridatta
Myokyo-ni Nagarjuna Nagasena Soen Nakagawa Bhikkhu Nanamoli
Matara Sri Nanarama Mahathera Nanavira Thera Nanda Naropa Nichiren
Kitaro Nishida Gudō Wafu Nishijima Nyanaponika Nyanaponika Thera Nyanatiloka
Thothori Nyantsen Ōbaku Toni Packer Padmasambhava Sakya Pandita
Paramanuchitchinorot Pema Lingpa Prajñāvarman Punna Rāhula
Thotagamuwe Sri Rahula Thera Walpola Rahula Paul Reps Caroline Rhys Davids Sonam Rinchen (Buddhist geshe)
Hammalawa Saddhatissa Kazi Dawa Samdup Chatral Sangye Dorje Ajahn Sao Kantasīlo Sariputta
Sayadaw U Tejaniya Seongcheol Seungsahn Shantideva Shavaripa
Sheng-yen Zenkei Shibayama Takamaro Shigaraki Silabhadra Sīlācāra
Shin Maha Silavamsa Śrāvaka Subhashitaratnanidhi Subhuti Suddhodana
Śuddhodana D. T. Suzuki Shunryū Suzuki Taklung Thangpa Tashi Pal The ten principal disciples
Tiantong Rujing Tilopa Chögyam Trungpa Tsangnyön Heruka Yeshe Tsogyal
Upali Uppalavanna Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo Xuanzang Yasa
Yashodhara Yasodharā Linji Yixuan Zanabazar Śāriputra

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