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|The five paths|
The five paths are:
- The path of accumulation (saṃbhāra-mārga)
- The path of preparation or application (prayoga-mārga)
- The path of seeing (darśana-mārga)
- The path of meditation (bhāvanā-mārga)
- The path of no more learning or consummation (aśaikṣā-mārga)
Distinctions between different vehicles
- on the Sravakayana level:
- on the Mahayana level:
From the Mahayana point of view, the motivation and the realization of the Sravaka are inferior:
- the Sravaka motivation is liberation for the self alone, which is inferior to the Mahayana motivation to benefit all beings
- the realization of the Sravaka (anatman) is equivalent to the realization of selflessness of person (pudgalanairātmya), which is inferior to the realization of the two-fold emptiness of self and other
Paths and bhumis
Paths and obscurations
The Mahayana also makes a distinction between emotional obscurations and cognitive obscruations.
- The "emotional obscurations" (kleśā-varaṇa) are overcome at the attainment of the path of seeing
- The "cognitive obscurations" (jñeyā-varaṇa) are overcome over the course of the path of meditation
- Buswell, Robert E.; Lopez, Donald S. (2014), The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism, Princeton University
- Dalai Lama; Thubten Chodron (2014), Buddhism: One Teacher, Many Traditions, Wisdom Publications, "Chapter 10, Section: Sanskrit Tradition: Five Paths and Ten Bodhisattva Grounds"
- Jikdrel Yeshe Dorje (1991), The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism: Its Fundamentals and History, translated by Gyurme Dorje and Matthew Kapstein, Boston: Wisdom Publications, ISBN 0-86171-199-8
- Brunnhölzl, Karl (2011), Gone Beyond: The Prajnaparamita Sutras, The Ornament of Clear Realization, and Its Commentaries in the Tibetan Kagyu Tradition, Volume One, Snow Lion
- Gethin, Rupert (1998), Foundations of Buddhism (Kindle ed.), Oxford University Press, "Chapter 7, Section: The scheme of the five paths"
- Harvey, Peter (2013), An Introduction to Buddhism (Second ed.), Cambridge University Press, "Chapter 11"