Four types of object

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Four types of object (T. yul bzhi ཡུལ་བཞི་) are identified in the pramana tradition. These are four main types of objects (viṣaya) of consciousness (vijnana).[1]

The four types of object are:[1][2][3]

  1. appearing object (T. snang yul; Skt. pratibhāsa-viṣaya)
  2. apprehended object (T. gzung yul; Skt. grāhyaviṣaya)
  3. conceived object (T. zhen yul; Skt. adhyavasāya-viṣaya)
  4. object of engagement (T. 'jug yul; Skt. pravṛttiviṣaya)


  1. 1.0 1.1 Perdue 1992, p. 285.
  2. Internet-icon.svg yul bzhi, Christian-Steinert Dictionary
  3. RW icon height 18px.png Four types of object, Rigpa Shedra Wiki