Hakuun Yasutani

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Hakuun Yasutani
D'Orschy und Yasutani Roshi.jpg
Yasutani Rōshi and Brigitte D'Ortschy
Religion Japanese Zen
School Sanbo Kyodan
Personal
Nationality Japanese
Born 1885
Japan
Died 1973 (aged 87–88)
Senior posting
Title Rōshi
Predecessor Harada Daiun Sogaku
Successor Yamada Koun
Taizan Maezumi

Hakuun Yasutani (安谷 白雲, Yasutani Haku'un, 1885–1973) was a Sōtō rōshi, the founder of the Sanbo Kyodan organization of Japanese Zen.

Biography

Ryōkō Yasutani (安谷 量衡) was born in Japan in Shizuoka Prefecture. His family was very poor, and therefore he was adopted by another family.[1] When he was five he was sent to Fukuji-in, a small Rinzai-temple under the guidance of Tsuyama Genpo.[1]

Yasutani saw himself becoming a Zen-priest as destined:

There is a miraculous story about his birth: His mother had already decided that her next son would be a priest when she was given a bead off a rosary by a nun who instructed her to swallow it for a safe childbirth. When he was born his left hand was tightly clasped around that same bead. By his own reckoning, "your life ... flows out of time much earlier than what begins at your own conception. Your life seeks your parents.[1]

Yet his chances to become a Zen-priest were small, since he was not born into a temple-family.[2]

When he was eleven he moved to Daichuji, also a Rinzai-temple.[1] At the age of thirteen he was ordained at Teishinji,[1] a Sōtō temple and given the name Hakuun.[3] When he was sixteen he moved again, to Denshinji, under the guidance of Bokusan Nishiari.[1]

Thereafter he studied with several other priests, but was also educated as a schoolteacher and became an elementary school teacher and principal. When he was thirty he married, and his wife and he eventually had five children.[1]

He began training in 1925, when he was forty, under Harada Daiun Sogaku, a Sōtō Rōshi who had studied Zen under both Sōtō and Rinzai masters. Two years later he attained kensho, as recognized by his teacher. He finished his koan study when he was in his early fifties, and received Dharma transmission from Harada in 1943, at age fifty-eight.[4] He was head of a training-hall, but gave this up, preferring instead to train lay-practitioners.[1]

To Yasutani's opinion Sōtō Zen practice in Japan had become rather methodical and ritualistic.[5] Yasutani felt that practice and realization were lacking. He left the Sōtō-sect, and in 1954, when he was already 69, established Sanbō Kyōdan (Fellowship of the Three Treasures), his own organization as an independent school of Zen.[4] After that his efforts were directed primarily toward the training of lay practitioners.

Yasutani first traveled to United States in 1962 when he was already in his seventies. He became known through the book The Three Pillars of Zen, published in 1965.[6] It was compiled by Philip Kapleau, who started to study with Yasutani in 1956. It contains a short biography of Yasutani and his Introductory Lectures on Zen Training. The lectures were among the first instructions on how to do zazen ever published in English. The book also has Yasutani's Commentary on the Koan Mu and somewhat unorthodox reports of his dokusan interviews with Western students.[7]

In 1970 upon his retirement Yasutani was succeeded as Kanchõ (superintendent) of the Sanbokyodan sect by Yamada Kõun. Hakuun Yasutani died on 8 March 1973.[8]

Teaching style

The Sanbō Kyōdan incorporates Rinzai Kōan study as well as much of Soto tradition, a style Yasutani had learned from his teacher Harada Daiun Sogaku.

Yasutani placed great emphasis on kensho, initial insight into one's true nature,[9] as a start of real practice:[1][note 1]

Yasutani was so outspoken because he felt that the Soto sect in which he trained emphasized the intrinsic, or original aspect of enlightenment — that everything is nothing but Buddha-nature itself — to the exclusion of the experiential aspect of actually awakening to this original enlightenment.[1]

To attain kensho, most students are assigned the mu-koan. After breaking through, the student first studies twenty-two "in-house"[10] koans, which are "unpublished and not for the general public".[10] There-after, the students goes through the Gateless Gate (Mumonkan), the Blue Cliff Record, the Book of Equanimity, and the Record of Transmitting the Light.[10]

Influence

As founder of the Sanbo Kyodan, and as the teacher of Taizan Maezumi, Yasutani has been one of the most influential persons in bringing Zen practice to the west. Although the membership of the Sanbo Kyodan organization is relatively small (3,790 registered followers and 24 instructors in 1988[11]), "the Sanbõkyõdan has had an inordinate influence on Zen in the West",[11] and although the White Plum Asanga founded by Taizan Maezumi is independent of the Sanbo Kyodan, in some respects it perpetuates Yasutani's influence.

Soto lineage
Soto school
Rinzai lineage
Rinzai school
Harada Sodo Kakusho (1844-1931)[web 1] Dokutan Sosan (a.k.a. Dokutan Toyota) (1840-1917)[web 1] Rinzai lineage
Rinzai school
Harada Daiun Sogaku (1871-1961)[web 1] Soto lineage
Soto school
Joko Roshi
[web 2][note 2]
Hakuun Yasutani[web 1] Hakuun Yasutani[web 1] Baian Hakujun Kuroda Koryu Osaka (1901-1985)
Philip Kapleau (1912-2004) Yamada Koun (1907-1989) Taizan Maezumi (1931-1995)
  1. Bishop, Mitra (b.1941)
  2. Henry, Michael Danan (b.1939-)
  3. Gifford, Dane Zenson
  4. Graef, Sunyana (b.1948)
  5. Kjolhede, Sonja Sunya Sensei
  6. Low, Albert (b.1928)
  7. Sachter, Lawson David
  8. Toni Packer(b.1927) (Independent)
  9. Clarke, Richard (b.1933) (Independent)
  1. Yukiyoshi Zuiun-ken Adachi
  2. Reiko Houn-an Adachi
  3. Robert Chotan Gyoun Aitken
  4. Osamu Shoun-ken Ashida
  5. Fr. Niklaus Goun-ken Brantschen, SJ
  6. Uta Ryuun-an Dreisbach
  7. Sr. Ludwigis Koun-an Fabian, OSB
  8. Lourdes Mila Gyokuun-an Golez
  9. Ruben Keiun-ken Habito[web 3]
  10. Kodo Nyoun-ken Hasegawa
  11. Tetsuo Taiun-ken Hiyama
  12. Fr. Willigis Koun-ken Jaeger, OSB
  13. Akira Ji'un-ken Kubota
  14. Heidi Heki-un an Kern
  15. Johannes Houn-ken Kopp
  16. Victor Yuun-ken Loew
  17. Peter Choun-ken Lengsfeld
  18. David Tetsuun-ken Loy
  19. Sr. Elaine Koun-an MacInnes
  20. Gundula Zuiun-an Meyer
  21. Carmen Baika-an Monske
  22. Teizo Kaku'un-ken Nakamura
  23. Tsuneo Go'un-ken Oda
  24. Akira Soun-ken Onda
  25. Silvia Rin'un-an Ostertag
  26. Sonia Shuni-an Punzalan
  27. Kathleen Seiun-an Reiley
  28. Joan Jo-un Rieck
  29. Ama Genun-ken Samy
  30. Ana Maria Kiun-an Schlüter Rodes
  31. Shitetsu Shoun-ken Sendo
  32. Paul Choun-ken Shepherd
  33. Roselyn Seiun-an Stone
  34. Toshio Hekiun-ken Tonoike
  35. Shue Reiunken Usami
  36. Masamichi Ryoun-ken Yamada
  1. Alfred Jitsudo Ancheta
  2. Susan Myoyu Andersen-Palmer
  3. Jan Chozen Bays(b.1945)
  4. Charlotte Joko Beck(1917-2011)
  5. Charles Tenshin Fletcher
  6. Tetsugen Bernard Glassman(b.1939)
  7. John Daido Loori (1931-2009)
  8. Dennis Genpo Merzel (b.1944)
  9. Nicolee Jikyo Miller-McMahon
  10. Louis Mitsunen Nordstrom (b.1943)
  11. John Tesshin Sanderson
  12. Gerry Shishin Wick
  13. William Nyogen Yeo (b.1936)


Bibliography

  • Yasutani, Hakuun; Jaffe, Paul (1996), Flowers Fall: A commentary on Zen Master Dogen's Genjokoan, Shambala, ISBN 1-57062-103-9 
  • Dōgen Zenji to Shūshōgi (道元禅師と修證義). Tōkyō: Fujishobō, 1943

See also

Notes

  1. This is in line with Rinzai-Zen, which emphasizes kensho, but does not regard this to be the end of the way. See Three mysterious Gates, and the Four Ways of Knowing
  2. Bernie Glassmann: "Koryu roshi’s school was called Shakyamuni Kai. The Shakyamuni Kai was formed by Koryu roshi’s teacher, a man named Joko roshi; Joko roshi was actually a priest and teacher in few different Buddhist traditions."[web 2] A group with a similar name was the Shakuson Shōfu Kai, or "Shakyamuni True Way Society", founded by Kōnen Shaku (1849-1924), a student of Soyen Shaku.[12]


References

Book references

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 Jaffe 1979.
  2. Ford 2006, p. 150.
  3. Kapleau 1989, p. 30.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Jaffe 1996, p. xxiv.
  5. Jaffe 1996, p. xxviii.
  6. "Zen Teaching, Zen Practice: Philip Kapleau and The Three Pillars of Zen". thezensite. Retrieved 25 July 2014. First published in 1965, it has not been out of print ever since, has been translated into ten languages and, perhaps most importantly, still inspires newcomers to take up the practice of Zen Buddhism. 
  7. Jaffe 1996, p. xxv.
  8. Sharf, Robert, H. (1995). "Sanbokyodan. Zen and the Way of the New Religions" (PDF). Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. 22 (3-4): 422. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2000. 
  9. Sharf 1995c.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Ford 2006, p. 42.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Sharf 1993.
  12. Morrow 2008, p. 2.


Web references


Sources

External links

Historical people list

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Aryadeva Asai Ryōi Assaji Atiśa Nisthananda Bajracharya
Benimadhab Barua Joko Beck Sanjaya Belatthiputta Charles Henry Allan Bennett Hubert Benoit (psychotherapist)
John Blofeld Bodhidharma Edward Espe Brown Polwatte Buddhadatta Thera Buddhaghosa
Acharya Buddharakkhita Marie Byles Ajahn Chah Rerukane Chandawimala Thero Channa
Chokgyur Lingpa Edward Conze L. S. Cousins Brian Cutillo 1st Dalai Lama
2nd Dalai Lama 3rd Dalai Lama 4th Dalai Lama 5th Dalai Lama 6th Dalai Lama
7th Dalai Lama 8th Dalai Lama 9th Dalai Lama 10th Dalai Lama 11th Dalai Lama
12th Dalai Lama 13th Dalai Lama Bidia Dandaron Alexandra David-Néel Marian Derby
Devadatta U Dhammaloka K. Sri Dhammananda Dharmaditya Dharmacharya Dharmakirti
Dharmapala of Nalanda Anagarika Dharmapala Dharmottara Dignāga Dōgen
Dongchu Dongshan Liangjie Khakyab Dorje, 15th Karmapa Lama Rangjung Rigpe Dorje, 16th Karmapa Rangjung Dorje, 3rd Karmapa Lama
Heinrich Dumoulin Düsum Khyenpa, 1st Karmapa Lama Dzongsar Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö Walter Evans-Wentz Family of Gautama Buddha
Frederick Franck Gampopa Gelek Rimpoche Gö Lotsawa Zhönnu-pel Gorampa
Maha Pajapati Mahapajapati Mahapajapati Gotami Rita Gross Gurulugomi
Phagmo Drupa Dorje Gyalpo Tsangpa Gyare Gendun Gyatso Palzangpo Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso Dolpopa
Dolpopa Sherab Gyaltsen Gyeongbong Han Yong-un Thich Nhat Hanh Walisinghe Harischandra
Eugen Herrigel Ernő Hetényi Marie Musaeus Higgins Raicho Hiratsuka Shin'ichi Hisamatsu
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9th Jebtsundamba Khutughtu Jeongang Kadawedduwe Jinavamsa Mahathera Ken Jones (Buddhist) David Kalupahana
Dainin Katagiri Katyayana (Buddhist) Bob Kaufman Kaundinya Jack Kerouac
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King Suppabuddha Jamgon Kongtrul Kukkuripa Kumar Kashyap Mahasthavir Kunkhyen Pema Karpo
Drukpa Kunley Trevor Leggett Arthur Lillie Karma Lingpa Robert Linssen
Longchenpa John Daido Loori Albert Low Luipa Taizan Maezumi
Mahakasyapa Mahākāśyapa Mahamoggallana Mahasi Sayadaw Jyotipala Mahathera
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Matara Sri Nanarama Mahathera Nanavira Thera Nanda Naropa Nichiren
Kitaro Nishida Gudō Wafu Nishijima Nyanaponika Nyanaponika Thera Nyanatiloka
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