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The Itivuttaka (Pali for "as it was said") is the fourth book from the Khuddaka Nikaya of the Pali Canon.

According to the commentarial tradition, the suttas (discourses) of the Itivuttaka were collected by the female lay-disciple Khujjuttara from sermons given by the Buddha while he was staying at Kosambi.[1][2]

It comprises 112 short teachings ascribed in the text to the Buddha, each consisting of a prose portion followed by a verse portion. The latter may be a paraphrase of the former, or complementary. Some scholars consider it one of the earliest of all Buddhist scriptures,[3] while others consider it somewhat later.



  1. Ireland, John (trans. & intro.) (1999). Itivuttaka: The Buddha's Sayings (excerpts). Article's "Introduction" is available on-line at
  2. Thanissaro Bhikkhu (trans. & intro.) (2001). Itivuttaka: This Was Said by the Buddha. "Translator's Introduction" is available on-line at
  3. Nakamura, Indian Buddhism, Japan, 1990; reprinted Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi

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