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Jāti (P. jāti; T. skye ba; C. sheng; J. shō 生) means birth, arising, generation, production etc.

Jāti can refer to the birth of a sentient being, or to the arising of a new physical or mental experience.

Jati is identified in the following contexts:

Within the Four Noble Truths

Within the teachings on the Four Noble Truths, jāti is identified as an aspect of dukkha (suffering). For example, The Discourse That Sets Turning the Wheel of Truth states:[lower-alpha 1]

  1. "Now this, monks, is the noble truth of dukkha: birth (jati) is dukkha, aging (jarā) is dukkha, death (maraṇa) is dukkha; sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, & despair are dukkha; association with the unbeloved is dukkha; separation from the loved is dukkha; not getting what is wanted is dukkha. In short, the five clinging-aggregates are dukkha.

Ajahn Sucitto states:

How is birth difficult, or how does it involve suffering? Well, giving birth is physically painful; and also birth is appearance into an uncertain realm. Notice how babies suffer: coming into the world must be a desperate and frightening experience. For the majority of beings, including people in the world today, it means the end of guaranteed nourishment and the beginning of the struggle to survive. Even for the small percentage of privileged humans who live in affluent societies, with birth begins a life in which some physical discomfort is guaranteed, along with the need to sustain or defend the comfort, the property, and the health that they do have. In every case, the obvious long- or short-term consequence of birth is death—the ultimate trajectory is an unavoidable decline. So whatever the joy that comes as a result of birth, birth includes an element of suffering or stress that will arise sooner or later. Birth can also be viewed as “the unfulfilled,” which seeks fulfillment. That is, birth is the beginning of need, a shadow-mood that accompanies anything that arises.[1]

Within the twelve links of dependent origination

is one of the

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Jāti is the eleventh of the twelve links of dependent origination; it is conditioned by becoming (bhava), and is the condition for the arising of old age and death (jarāmaraṇa) in a living being. That is, once a being is born, it will necessarily grow old and eventually die.

As a nonconcurrent formation

As a non-concurrent formation, jāti refers to the arising of conditioned phenomena. It is identified as:

Four types of birth

In tantric Buddhism, there are four forms of birth:[2][3]

  • birth from an egg (Sanskrit: Andaja; Pali: Aṇḍaja; Chinese: 卵生; Standard Tibetan: Sgongskyes)—like a bird, fish, or reptile;
  • birth from a womb (Sanskrit: Jarayuja; Pali: Jalābuja; Chinese: 胎生; Standard Tibetan: Mnal-skyes)—like most mammals and some worldly devas;
  • birth from moisture (Sanskrit: Samsvedaja; Pali: Saṃsedaja; Chinese: 濕生; Standard Tibetan: Drod-skyes)—probably referring to the appearance of animals whose eggs are microscopic, like maggots appearing in rotting flesh;
  • birth by transformation (Sanskrit: Upapaduka; Pali: Opapatika; Chinese: 化生; Standard Tibetan: Rzus-skyes)—miraculous materialization, as with most devas.

Within the Buddhist discourses

Jāti is identified within the Buddha's first discourse, The Discourse That Sets Turning the Wheel of Truth, as an aspect of dukkha (suffering):

"The Noble Truth of Suffering (dukkha), monks, is this: birth (jati) is suffering, aging is suffering..., death is suffering, association with the unpleasant is suffering, dissociation from the pleasant is suffering, not to receive what one desires is suffering—in brief the five aggregates subject to grasping are suffering."[4]

In the Paṭiccasamuppāda Vibhaṅga Sutta, the Buddha states:

"And what is birth? Whatever birth, taking birth, descent, coming-to-be, coming-forth, appearance of aggregates, & acquisition of [sense] spheres of the various beings in this or that group of beings, that is called birth."[5]


  1. In this translation by John T. Bullit, Bullit leaves the term "dukkha" untranslated. The main article that presents this translation is The Four Noble Truths.[web 1] Links to each line in the translation are as follows: line 1: First Noble Truth; line 2: Second Noble Truth; line 3: Third Noble Truth; line 4: Fourth Noble Truth.


  1. Ajahn Sucitto 2010, p. 37.
  2. 佛學問答第三輯
  3. Bot Thubten Tenzin Karma and Rebirth
  4. Boldface added. This formula can be found, for instance, in the Buddha's first discourse, the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta (Piyadassi, 1999), as well as in his famed Mahasatipatthana Sutta (Thanissaro, 2000). (Note that the former sutta also includes the phrase "... sickness is suffering ..." which has been elided from the quote used in this article to reflect the common text between the two identified discourses.)
  5. See, for instance, SN 12.2 (Thanissaro, 1997) and DN 22 (Thanissaro, 2000).

Web references


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