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The Kalmyks are the Oirats in Russia, whose ancestors migrated from Dzungaria in 1607. They created the Kalmyk Khanate in 1630–1771 in Russia's North Caucasus territory. Today they form a majority in the Republic of Kalmykia located in the Kalmyk Steppe, on the western shore of the Caspian Sea.
They are the only traditionally Buddhist people whose homeland is located within Europe proper.
Through emigration, small Kalmyk communities have been established in the United States, France, Germany, and the Czech Republic.