Kalyāṇa-mittatā (Pali; Skt.: -mitratā) is a Buddhist concept of "spiritual friendship" within Buddhist community life, applicable to both monastic and householder relationships. One involved in such a relationship is known as a "good friend", "virtuous friend", "noble friend" or "admirable friend" (kalyāṇa-mitta, -mitra).
Since early Buddhist history, these relationships have involved spiritual teacher-student dyads as well as communal peer groups. In general, such is a supportive relationship based on shared Buddhist ethical values and the pursuit of enlightenment.
In the Pali Canon's Upaddha Sutta (SN 45.2), there is a conversation between the Buddha and his disciple Ananda in which Ananda enthusiastically declares, 'This is half of the holy life, lord: admirable friendship, admirable companionship, admirable camaraderie.' The Buddha replies:
- 'Don't say that, Ananda. Don't say that. Admirable friendship, admirable companionship, admirable camaraderie is actually the whole of the holy life. When a monk has admirable people as friends, companions, & comrades, he can be expected to develop & pursue the noble eightfold path.'
The Buddha elaborates that, through such friendships, one develops each of the path factors through seclusion, dispassion and cessation. Further, the Buddha states that through spiritual friendship with the Buddha himself followers have gained release from suffering.
According to Dr. R.L. Soni, canonical discourses state that "companionship with the wise" leads to the following developmental progression: "listening to good advice, rational faith, noble thoughts, clear thinking, self-control, good conduct, conquest of the hindrances, gaining of wisdom and the consequent liberation."
More broadly, in Itivuttaka 1.17, the Buddha declares:
- 'With regard to external factors, I don't envision any other single factor like admirable friendship as doing so much for a monk in training, who has not attained the heart's goal but remains intent on the unsurpassed safety from bondage. A monk who is a friend with admirable people abandons what is unskillful and develops what is skillful.'
- 'And what is meant by admirable friendship? There is the case where a lay person, in whatever town or village he may dwell, spends time with householders or householders' sons, young or old, who are advanced in virtue. He talks with them, engages them in discussions. He emulates consummate conviction in those who are consummate in conviction, consummate virtue in those who are consummate in virtue, consummate generosity in those who are consummate in generosity, and consummate discernment in those who are consummate in discernment. This is called admirable friendship.'
Post-canonical Pali texts
In the first-century CE exegetic Vimuttimagga, Arahant Upatissa identifies the need to find a "good friend" or "pre-eminent friend" in order to develop "excellent concentration." The good friend should understand the Tipiṭaka, kamma, "beneficent worldly knowledge" and the Four Noble Truths. Citing Anguttara Nikaya 7.36, Upatissa says that a bhikkhūmitto ("monk friend") should have the following seven qualities:
In the fifth-century CE Visuddhimagga ("Path of Purification"), Buddhaghosa also mentions the need to find a "good friend" in the context of finding one who will be your "giver of a meditation subject." As did Upatissa, Buddhaghosa refers to the seven qualities of AN 7.36 and adds that only the Buddha has all these qualities. If the Buddha is not available to be the good friend, then one of the eighty great śrāvakas is recommended; if one of them is not available, then one should find for a good friend who has destroyed all fetters through the attainment of all jhānas and the development of vipassanā. Otherwise, in descending order, one may choose: an anāgāmi or sakadagami or sotāpanna or non-arahat who has attained a jhānic state, or one who knows the Tipiṭaka or two piṭakas or one piṭaka, or one who knows a nikāya and its commentaries and who is conscientious.
The teacher/student relationship
In traditional schools of Buddhist thought, a spiritual friendship is a friendship not between one's peers, but a friendship between a student and their spiritual teacher. From the aforementioned suttas, we can see that the Buddha believed it vital for spiritual growth to have a spiritual friend. This friendship is built on a deep respect for the teacher's knowledge and the student's potential, and, through this respect and friendship, the two individuals learn constructive behaviour. Constructive behaviour in Buddhism is to think, speak, and behave in a constructive way towards life, leading to personal happiness, and, then, to enlightenment.
Within the Vajrayana tradition, the teacher/student relationship is considered of extreme importance to guide the student on the proper tantric path and to avoid the harmful consequences of misunderstanding and incorrect practice.
- Dighajanu Sutta - contextualizes kalyāṇa-mittatā among other householder duties.
- Collins, Steven (1987). Kalyāṇamitta and Kalyāṇamittatā, Journal of the Pali Text Society 11, 55
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1997). "Upaddha Sutta: Half (of the Holy Life) (SN 45.2)". Retrieved April 15, 2007. Also see Dharma Life. "Dharmalife.com". Retrieved July 27, 2006.
- Dr R.L. Soni, Life’s Highest Blessings (The Wheel Publication No. 254) (Kandy: Buddhist Publication Society, 1997) retrieved 2007-11-08 from "Access to Insight" at http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/soni/wheel254.html.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (2001). "The Group of Ones (Iti. 1-27)". Retrieved April 15, 2007.
- Thanissaro Bhikkhu (1995). "Dighajanu (Vyagghapajja) Sutta: To Dighajanu (AN 8.54)". Retrieved April 15, 2007.
- Upatissa, Arahant (1995). The Path of Freedom (Vimuttimagga). Translated by N.R.M. Ehara; Soma Thera; Kheminda Thera. Kandy, Sri Lanka: Buddhist Publication Society. pp. 48–50. ISBN 955-24-0054-6.
- The actual Pali associated with this sutta is "Piyo ca hoti manāpo ca, garu ca, bhāvanīyo ca, vattā ca, vacanakkhamo ca, gambhīrañca kathaṃ kattā hoti, no ca aṭṭhāne niyojeti." Sri Lanka Buddha Jayanti Tipitaka Series (SLTP). "AN 220.127.116.11, "Bhikkhumitta suttaṃ"". Retrieved October 7, 2006.
- Buddhaghosa, Bhadantācariya; Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli (trans.) (1999). The Path of Purification: Visuddhimagga. Seattle, WA: BPS Pariyatti Editions. p. 90. ISBN 1-928706-00-2.
- Buddhaghosa & Ñāṇamoli (1999), pp. 98-99.
- Alexander Berzin. "StudyBuddhism.com". Retrieved June 16, 2016.
- Berzin, Alexander. Relating to a Spiritual Teacher: Building a Healthy Relationship. Ithaca, Snow Lion, 2000
- Friendship Verses about Intimate Friends – Mitra-vargha
- Spiritual Friendship by Bhikkhu Bodhi
- Bullitt, John T. (2005). Admirable friendship: Kalyanamittata [An anthology from the Pali Canon]. Retrieved 20 July 2007 from "Access to Insight" at Admirable friendship: kalyanamittata.
- Subhuti (2001). Good Company [essay on spiritual friendship]. Printed in Dharmalife (No. 17, Winter 2001). Retrieved from "DharmaLife" at Good Company of Dharma Life.
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