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karmapatha (P. kammapatha; T. las kyi lam; C. yedao 業道). Literally, "course of action," refers to the ten wholesome and ten unwholesome actions (karma), which lead to favorable or unfavorable rebirth, respectively. A favorable birth is considered to be rebirth as a human (manuṣya) or deva; an unfavorable birth is a rebirth as an animal, preta or hell being.[1]

Ten unwholesome actions

Ten wholesome actions

The ten courses of wholesome action (kuśala-karmapatha) are the opposites of ten unwholesome actions:

Though the seven cases of abstinence are exercised entirely by the mind and do not necessarily entail overt action, they are still designated wholesome bodily and verbal action because they center on the control of the faculties of body and speech.[2]