Kaukṛtya (P. kukkucca; T. 'gyod pa; C. hui) is a mental factor which is defined as a type of regret or worry over past actions that is unwholesome in nature. This type of regret has an obsessive quality that disturbs the mind.
Kaukṛtya (Pali: kukkucca) is identified as:
- One of the five hindrances to meditation (in combination with auddhatya)
- One of the fourteen unwholesome mental factors within the Pali Abhidharma tradition
- One of the four changeable mental factors within the Abhidharma-samuccaya of the Sanskrit Mahayana tradition
- One of the eight indeterminate mental factors within the Abhidharma-kosa of the Sanskrit Mahayana tradition
Bhikkhu Bodhi explains:
- Kukkucca is worry or remorse after having done wrong. Its characteristic is subsequent regret. Its function is to sorrow over what has and what has not been done. It is manifested as remorse. Its proximate cause is what has and what has not been done (i.e. wrongs of commission and omission).
The Atthasālinī (II, Book II, Part IX, Chapter III, 258) gives the following definition of kukkucca:
- ...It has repentance as characteristic, sorrow at deeds of commission and omission as function, regret as manifestation, deeds of commission and omission as proximate cause, and it should be regarded as a state of bondage.
Nina van Gorkom explains:
- The characteristic of kukkucca is repentance. Repentance is generally considered a virtue, but the reality of kukkucca is not wholesome, it arises with dosa-mūla-citta (dosa). Kukkucca which “regrets” the commission of evil and the omission of kusala is different from wholesome thinking about the disadvantages of akusala and the value of kusala. The conventional term “worry” which is also used as translation of kukkucca may not be clear either. When we say that we worry, it may not be the reality of kukkucca but it may be thinking with aversion about an unpleasant object without there being kukkucca. For example, we may worry about the way how to solve a problem in the future; this kind of worry is not the reality of kukkucca. 
The Abhidharma-samuccaya states:
- What is kaukritya? It is an obsession regarding the positive, negative, indifferent, timely, untimely, appropriate and inappropriate on account of anything to be done intentionally or unintentionally and is related to bewilderment-erring. Its function is to obstruct the mind from becoming settled.
The Khenjuk states:
- Tib. འགྱོད་པ་ནི་སྔར་བྱས་པ་ལ་ཡིད་མི་དགའ་བའི་རྣམ་པས་ཡིད་ལ་བཅག་པ་སེམས་གནས་པའི་བར་དུ་གཅོད་པར་བྱེད་པའོ།
- Regret involves sadness because of mental displeasure with a former action. It prevents the mind from remaining. (Rigpa Translations)
- Regret involves sadness because of mental displeasure with a former action. It obstructs resting the mind. (Erik Pema Kunsang)
- Regret (‘gyod-pa) is a part of naivety (moha). It is the state of mind that does not wish to repeat doing something, either proper or improper, that we did or that someone else made us do.
Steven Goodman states:
- [Regret/worry] is defined as being obsessed with what is unwholesome or wholesome, what is appropriate or inappropriate, what is intentional or not intentional. Its function is to obstruct the mind from being calm. It has as its habit becoming addicted to what is not pleasing. Such regret and worry is addiction to that which is not pleasing.
- Berzin, Alexander (ed.), Primary Minds and the 51 Mental Factors, StudyBuddhism
- Bhikkhu Bodhi, ed. (2000), A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, Pariyatti Publishing
- Buswell, Robert E.; Lopez, Donald S. (2014), The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism, Princeton University
- Goodman, Steven D. (2020), The Buddhist Psychology of Awakening: An In-Depth Guide to the Abhidharma (Apple Books ed.), Shambhala Publications
- Mipham Rinpoche (2004), Gateway to Knowledge, vol. I, translated by Kunsang, Erik Pema, Rangjung Yeshe Publications
- van Gorkom, Nina (1999), Cetasikas, Zolog
- Yeshe Gyeltsen (1975), Mind in Buddhist Psychology: A Translation of Ye-shes rgyal-mtshan's "The Necklace of Clear Understanding", translated by Guenther, Herbert V.; Kawamura, Leslie S., Dharma Publishing
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