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Kliṣṭamanas (T. nyon yid; C. ranmona/mona shi 染末那/末那識), or defiled mental consciousness or afflicted consciousness, is the seventh of the eight consciousnesses presented in the Yogacara school. This consciousness is focused inwards upon the ālayavijñāna (the storehouse consciousness), mistaking it for a substantial self, with the result that all experience is subsequently divided into wanted and unwanted. When buddhahood is attained, this consciousness is transformed into the wisdom of equality.[1]


Thrangu Rinpoche explains:

The seventh consciousness refers to the most basic level of mental afflictions, or kleshas. It refers not to the coarse kleshas, but to the root of the kleshas. Specifically, the afflicted consciousness is the most subtle level of fixation on a self. [...] It is unfluctuatingly present even when one is asleep. When sometimes you have a sense of self, and you think “I”, that is an operation not of the seventh consciousness but of the sixth. [...] Although it is not itself directly observable, the afflicted consciousness is the basis for all coarse fixation on a self and therefore for all coarse kleshas.[2]

Alternative translations

  • Afflictive aspect of consciousness (LCN)
  • Defiled emotional consciousness (Padmakara)
  • Deluded consciousness (Gyurme Dorje)

This term is sometimes referred to as manas-vijnana.


  1. Robert E. Buswell Jr., Donald S. Lopez Jr., The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism (Princeton: 2014), s.v. Kliṣṭamanas
  2. Creation and Completion, p.126

External links

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