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kumbhāṇḍa. [alt. kumbhaṇḍa] (P. kumbhaṇḍa; T. grul bum; C. jiupantu 鳩槃荼). A type of non-human being typically listed along with rākṣasas, as well as piśāca, yaksha and bhuta beings.[1]

The deva king Virūḍhaka is typically said to be their overlord, though some texts give this role to Rudra.[1] The kumbhāṇḍa are also sometimes said to be minions of Mara.

Theravada glossary states:

A class of [non-human beings] mentioned with Yakkhas, Asuras and Nagas. Virulha is their king (D.ii.257; D.iii.198). In the Vidhurapandita Jataka (J.vi.272), Kumbhira (q.v.) is mentioned as one of their chiefs. They had huge stomachs, and their genital organs were as big as pots, hence their name. DA.iii.964.[2]

The Pali term kumbhanda means "gourd."[2]