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Nichiren (日蓮)
File:Great Nichiren.jpg
Religion Nichiren Buddhism
School Mahayana
Lineage Various
Education Kiyozumi-dera Temple (Seichō-ji), Enryaku-ji Temple on Mount Hiei
Dharma names Rencho (1234)
Nichiren (1253)
Nationality Japanese
Born February 16, 1222[2]
Chiba Prefecture, Japan
Died October 13, 1282(1282-10-13) (aged 60)
Ota Ikegami Daibo Hongyoji
Senior posting
Based in Japan
Title Nichiren
Great Nichiren
Predecessor Saicho
Shakyamuni Buddha
Religious career
Teacher Dōzenbo of Seichō-ji Temple[citation needed]
Reincarnation Bodhisattva Visistacaritra

Nichiren also known as "Nichiren Shonin" or "Nichiren Daishonin" (日蓮; 16 February 1222 – 13 October 1282), born as Zen-nichi-maro (善日麿), was a Japanese Buddhist priest who lived during the Kamakura period (1185–1333).

Nichiren is known for his sole devotion to the Lotus Sutra, asserting that it was Shakyamuni Buddha's ultimate teachings and was the exclusive method to attain enlightenment.[4][page needed][5][6] He believed that the Lotus Sutra contained the essence of all of Shakyamuni Buddha's teachings related to the laws of causality, karma, without any distinction to enlightenment.[7][page needed][8][9][10][11][12][13] His interpretation of the Lotus Sutra centers on the emphasis of its 16th chapter, The Life Span of the Thus Come One, where he asserts his revelation that the chanting of Nam Myōhō Renge Kyō is the superior practice of today's age of Mappō.

Nichiren strongly proposed the chanting of Nam Myōhō Renge Kyō by attributing the natural and social calamities of his time to his claim that the Pure Land, Zen, Shingon, Ritsu, and Tendai schools were unable to supernaturally protect Japan. Ultimately, Nichiren drew the anger of Japan's ruling Hōjō clan when his two Lotus Sutra-based predictions of foreign invasion and political strife were seemingly actualized by the Mongol invasions of Japan and an attempted coup within the Hōjō clan. The religious remonstration in which he made these two predictions, Risshō Ankoku Ron (立正安国論) (On Establishing the Correct Teaching for the Security of the Land), is considered by Japanese historians to be a literary classic illustrating the apprehensions of that period.

While all Nichiren Buddhist schools regard him as a reincarnation of the Visistacaritra or Jōgyō (上行), the lineages from Nikko Shonin proclaim Nichiren as the "Original Buddha" from infinite aeons ago, addressing him the title of Daishonïn (Kanji: 大聖人, English: Great Sage) as well as the (本仏: Hombutsu) "True Buddha of the Latter Day of the Law" as taught Three Ages of Buddhism.[14][15][16]

Today, Nichiren Buddhism includes traditional schools such as Nichiren Shōshū, the Nichiren Shū confederation of schools, and modern lay movements such Kenshokai, Shoshinkai, Soka Gakkai, Risshō Kōsei Kai, and Honmon Butsuryū Shū and various others each claiming their own interpretations of Nichiren's teachings.[13]

Early life


According to the Chinese lunar calendar, Nichiren was born on 27th of 1st month in year 1222 which is translated to 16 February on Gregorian solar calendar,.[17] A mistaken date sometimes used is 6 April or 30 March, when Tiantai time then was born on lunar calendar date 16th of 2st month in the Chinese 24th solar terms to calculate and conversion the Gregorian calendar.[18][19]

Nichiren was born in the village of Kominato (today part of the city of Kamogawa), Nagase District, Awa Province (within present-day Chiba Prefecture). Nichiren's father, a fisherman, was Mikuni-no-Tayu Shigetada, also known as Nukina Shigetada Jiro (d. 1258) and his mother was Umegiku-nyo (d. 1267). On his birth, his parents named him Zennichimaro (善日麿) which has variously been translated into English as "Splendid Sun" and "Virtuous Sun Boy" among others.[20] The exact site of Nichiren's birth is believed to be submerged off the shore from present-day Kominato-zan Tanjō-ji (小湊山 誕生寺), a temple in Kominato that commemorates Nichiren's birth.

Nichiren stated that he was "the son of a chandala family who lived near the sea in Tojo in Awa Province, in the remote countryside of the eastern part of Japan".[21]

Buddhist education

In a letter dated the 6th day of the 9th month of the Kōan Era (1271), Nichiren writes to a disciple, looking back on his life:[22]

…Determined to plant a seed of Buddhahood and attain Buddhahood in this life, just as all other people, I relied on Amida Buddha and chanted the name of this Buddha since childhood. However, I began doubting this practice, making a vow to study all the Buddhist sutras, commentaries on them by disciples, and explanatory notes by others…

Nichiren began his Buddhist study at a nearby temple of the Tendai school, Seichō-ji (清澄寺, also called Kiyosumi-dera), at twelve years old.[23] He was formally ordained at sixteen years old and took the Buddhist name Zeshō-bō Renchō (是聖房蓮長) where Renchō means "Lotus Growth". He left Seichō-ji shortly thereafter to study in Kamakura and several years later traveled to western Japan for more in-depth study in the KyotoNara area, where Japan's major centers of Buddhist learning were located.[24][25] In 1233 he went to Kamakura, where he studied Pure Land Buddhism, a pious school that stressed salvation through the invocation of Amitābha (Japanese Amida), the Buddha of infinite compassion, under the guidance of a renowned master.

After having persuaded himself that devotion to Amitabha Buddha was not the true Buddhist doctrine, he passed to the study of Zen, which had become popular in Kamakura and Kyōto. He then went to Mount Hiei, the cradle of Tendai, where he felt the original purity of the Tendai doctrine corrupted by the introduction and acceptance of other doctrines, especially Amidism and esoteric Buddhism.[26] To eliminate any possible doubts, Nichiren decided to spend some time at Mount Kōya, the centre of Shingon Buddhism, and also in Nara, Japan's ancient capital, where he studied the Risshū, which emphasized strict adherence to the Vinaya, the code of monastic discipline and ordination. During this time, he became convinced of the pre-eminence of the Lotus Sutra and in 1253, returned to Seichō-ji.[27]

Declaration of Nam Myoho Renge Kyo

On 28 April 1253, he expounded the public declaration of Nam Myoho Renge Kyo for the first time, termed as his "Sho Tempō-Rin" (初転法輪: English: "first turning the wheel of the Law"). With this, he proclaimed that Buddhist devotion as the correct form of Buddhism for the current time. At the same time he changed his name to own Buddhist name to Nichiren, a portmanteau of Nichi (日) English: "Sun" and Ren (蓮) meaning "Lotus".[28] He later explained this choice was rooted in passages from the Lotus Sutra.[29]

This declaration marked by all schools of Nichiren Buddhism to their cornerstone of foundation (立宗: Risshū). Nichiren began propagating his teachings in Kamakura, Kanagawa, the capital of Japan at the time due to the Shikken or regent and the Shogun himself lived and the government was established. He gained followers there consisting of both priests and laity, which several were from among the Samurai class.

Devotees claim that in 1253, Nichiren predicted the Mongol invasions of Japan: a prediction which was validated in 1274. Nichiren viewed his teachings as a method of efficaciously preventing this and other disasters: that the best countermeasure to these disasters were the rejection of all Buddhist practices and singularly practice the chanting of Nam Myoho Renge Kyo as he prescribed.[30]

First remonstration to the Kamakura government

The banishment of Nichiren in 1261, whereas the disciple Nichirō wished to follow, but forbidden to do so. Tourist postcard artwork, circa 1920s.

Nichiren then engaged in writing his various works including his Risshō Ankoku Ron[31][32][33] (立正安国論): "Treatise On Establishing the Correct Teaching for the Peace of the Land",[note 1] his first major treatise and the first of three remonstrations with government authorities. He felt that it was imperative for:

…the Sovereign to recognize and accept the singly true and correct form of Buddhism (i.e., 立正: risshō) as the only way to achieve peace and prosperity for the land and its people and end their suffering (i.e., 安国: ankoku)…

Nichiren claims that this is the "true and correct form of Buddhism", with regarding the Lotus Sutra as the fullest expression of the Shakyamuni Buddha's teachings and putting them into practice. Nichiren thought this could be achieved in Japan by withdrawing lay support so that the other monks which he viewed as corrupt would be forced to change their ways or revert to laymen to prevent starving.

Based on apocalyptic prophecies cited in several Buddhist sutras,[34] Nichiren attributed the occurrence of the famines, disease, and natural disasters (especially drought, typhoons, and earthquakes) of his day to claims that the expired teachings of Buddhism were no longer appropriate for the time.

Nichiren submitted his treatise in 16 July 1260 to Hojo Tokiyori, the acting regent of the Kamakura Shogunate. Though it drew no official response, it prompted a severe backlash from the Buddhist priests of other schools. As a result, Nichiren was frequently harassed causing him to constantly change dwellings.

As punishment, Nichiren was exiled to the Izu Peninsula in 1261, and pardoned in 1263. He was ambushed and nearly killed at Komatsubara in Awa Province in November 1264 by military forces led by Lord Tōjō Kagenobu.

Attempts of execution

After one exchange with the influential Shingon priest, Ryōkan (良観), Nichiren was summoned for questioning by the Japanese authorities in September 1271. He used this as an opportunity to make his second government remonstration, this time to the police officer, Hei no Saemon (平の左衛門, also called 平頼綱: Taira no Yoritsuna) who summoned him to the court.

Two days later, on September 12, Hei no Saemon and a group of soldiers abducted Nichiren from his hut at Matsubagayatsu, Kamakura with the intent to arrest and behead him. He was brought to the Tatsunukochi beach for execution. According to Nichiren's account, an astronomical phenomenon — "a brilliant orb as bright as the moon" — over the seaside Tatsunokuchi execution grounds terrified Nichiren's executioners into inaction.[35] The incident is known as the Tatsunokuchi Persecution and regarded as a turning point in Nichiren's lifetime called Hosshaku kenpon (発迹顕本), translated as "casting off the transient and revealing the true,"[citation needed] or "Outgrowing the provisional and revealing the essential".[36]

Second banishment and exile

Konpon Temple was built on Sado where Nichiren lived during his exile.

Unsure of what to do with Nichiren, Hei no Saemon decided to banish him to Sado, Niigata island in the Sea of Japan known for its particularly severe winters where exilers do not survive.

This second exile lasted for three years caused him poor health, which later represented one of the most important and productive segments of his life. While on Sado, he won many devoted converts and wrote two of his most important doctrinal treatises, the Kaimoku Shō (開目抄: "On the Opening of the Eyes")[37] and the Kanjin no Honzon Shō (観心本尊抄: "The Object of Devotion for Observing the Mind")[31][38] as well as numerous letters and minor treatises whose content containing critical components of his teaching.

The Gohonzon

During his 1272 exile on Sado island, Nichiren inscribed the first Gohonzon (御本尊). He inscribed several during the course of many years. In addition, more than a hundred Gohonzon images preserved today are attributed to Nichiren, of which several are prominently retained by the Mount Minobu Sect in Yamanashi Prefecture also known as Nichiren Shu.

Hokkeko believers claim that that on 12 October 1279 he inscribed the Dai Gohonzon mandala for all humanity after the execution of the three Atsuhara farmers.[39] The Dai-Gohonzon is enshrined currently at the Tahō Fuji Dai-Nichirenge-Zan Taiseki-ji, informally known as the Head Temple Taiseki-ji of the Nichiren Shōshū Order of Buddhism, located at the foot of Mount Fuji in Fujinomiya, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan.

Return to Kamakura

Nichiren was pardoned in February 1274 and returned to Kamakura city in late March. He was again interviewed by Hei no Saemon, who became interested in Nichiren's prediction of an invasion by the Mongols. Mongol messengers demanding Japan's fealty had frightened the authorities into believing that Nichiren's prophecy of foreign invasion would materialize (which it later did in October of that year; see Mongol invasions of Japan). Nichiren, however, used the audience as yet another opportunity to remonstrate with the government.

Retirement to Mount Minobu

With the exception of a few short journeys, Nichiren spent the rest of his life at Minobu, where he and his disciples erected the Kuon-ji Temple (久遠寺), and he continued writing and training his disciples. Two of his works from this period are the Senji Shō (撰時抄: "The Selection of the Time")[40] and the Hōon Shō (報恩抄: "On Repaying Debts of Gratitude"),[41] which, along with his Risshō Ankoku Ron (立正安国論: "On Establishing the Correct Teaching for the Peace of the Land"), Kaimoku Shō ("The Opening of the Eyes"), and Kanjin no Honzon Shō ("The Object of Devotion for Observing the Mind"), constitute his Five Major Writings. He also inscribed numerous Gohonzon for bestowal upon specific disciples and lay believers.

Many of these survive today in the repositories of Nichiren temples such as Taiseki-ji (大石寺) in Fujinomiya, Shizuoka, which has a particularly large collection of scrolls that is publicly aired once a year, along with the dusting of the Dai-Gohonzon (O-mushibarai ceremony) by the High Priest of Nichiren Shoshu in April, as well as the public exposure of the statue of the master in both Mieido and Hoando buildings in November.[citation needed]


Nichiren spent his final years writing, inscribing Gohonzon for his disciples and believers, and delivering sermons. In failing health, he was encouraged to travel to hot springs for their medicinal benefits. He left Minobu in the company of several disciples on September 8, 1282.

He arrived ten days later at the residence of Ikegami Munenaka and his wife, two lay believers who lived in what is now Ikegami Honmon-ji. On September 25 he delivered his last sermon on the Risshō Ankoku Ron. On October 8, he appointed six senior disciples—Nisshō (日昭), Nichirō (日朗), Nikkō (日興), Nikō (日向), Nichiji (日持), and Nitchō (日頂)—to continue leading propagation of his teachings after his death. Due to the arising doctrinal conflicts which transpired after his death, Nichiren Shōshū believes that Nichiren designated five senior priests and one successor, Nikko Shonin.

On 13 October 1282, Nichiren died in the presence of many disciples and lay believers. His funeral and cremation took place the following day. His disciple Nikkō left Ikegami with Nichiren's ashes on October 21, reaching Minobu on October 25. Nichiren's original tomb is sited, as per his request, at Kuon-ji on Mount Minobu while Nichiren Shoshu claims that his disciple, the Chief Priest of Kuon-Ji temple consequently brought his ashes along with his other articles to Mount Fuji, where they are now enshrined on the left side next to the Dai Gohonzon within the Hoando storage house.[citation needed][note 2]

Development of Nichiren's teachings

Nichiren attributed the turmoils and disasters in society to his personal claim that the Buddhist teachings his time, including the Tendai sect in which he was ordained:

"It is better to be a leper who chants Nam-myōhō-renge-kyō than be a chief abbot of the Tendai school".[42][43]

Accordingly, the Kamakura period of 13th century Japan in which Nichiren was born was characterised by natural disasters, internal strife and political conflict that he attributed to the third age of Buddhism.[44]

At age 32, Nichiren began to denounce all Mahayana Buddhist schools of his time and by declaring the correct teaching as the Universal Dharma (Namu-Myōhō-Renge-Kyō) and chanting its words as the only path for both personal and social salvation.[45][46]

At the age of 51, Nichiren ultimately inscribed his own gohonzon, the object of veneration or worship in his own Buddhism.[47] the Gohonzon,"never before known" as he described it.[48]

Other contributions of Nichiren to Buddhism were the teaching of "The Five Guides of Propagation",[49] The doctrine of the Three Great Secret Dharmas[50] and the teaching of The Three Proofs[51] for verification of the validity of Buddhist doctrines. There is a difference between Nichiren teachings and almost all schools of Mahayana Buddhism regarding the understanding of the Latter day of the Law, Mappō. Nichiren believed that the teachings of the Lotus Sutra will flourish for all eternity, and the disciples on Earth will propagate Buddhism in the future.[52][not in citation given]

Nichiren criticized other Buddhist schools for what he viewed as manipulations of the populace for both political and religious control. Citing various Buddhist sutras and commentaries, Nichiren claimed and argued that these Buddhist schools were distorting the religious teachings for their own gain. Furthermore, he stated in his Risshō Ankoku Ron[32] (立正安国論): "Treatise On Establishing the Correct Teaching for the Peace of the Land",[note 3][53][54] his first major treatise and the first of three remonstrations with government authorities.

After Nichiren's death, his teachings were interpreted in different ways. As a result, Nichiren Buddhism encompasses several major branches and schools, each with its own doctrine and set of interpretations of Nichiren's teachings.

Nichiren's writings

A section of the Risshō Ankoku Ron

Many of Nichiren's writings still exist in his original handwriting, both some as complete writings and some as remaining fragments. Other documents survive as copies made by his immediate disciples. Nichiren's existing works number over 700 manuscripts in total, including transcriptions of orally delivered lectures, letters of remonstration and illustrations.[55][56][57][58][59]

Today's Nichiren schools widely disagree which of his writings can be deemed authentic and which are apocryphal.[60] Nichiren declared that women could attain enlightenment,[61][62][63] therefore a great number of letters were addressed to female believers. Some schools within Nichiren Buddhism consider this to be a unique feature of Nichiren's teachings and have published separate volumes of those writings.[64]

In addition to treatises written in formal kanbun (漢文) Classical Chinese, Nichiren also wrote expositories and letters to disciples and lay followers in mixed-kanjikana vernacular as well as letters in simple kana for believers who could not read the more-formal styles, particularly children.

Some of Nichiren's kanbun works, especially the Risshō Ankoku Ron, are considered exemplary of the kanbun style, while many of his letters show unusual empathy and understanding for the down-trodden of his day. Many of his most famous letters were to female believers, whom he often complimented for their in-depth questions about Buddhism while encouraging them in their efforts to attain enlightenment in this lifetime.

Selected important writings

The five major writings that are common to all Nichiren Buddhism are:[65][66][67]

  • On Establishing the Correct teaching for the Peace of the Land (Rissho Ankoku Ron) — written between 1258-1260.[68]
  • The Opening of the Eyes (Kaimoku-sho) — written in 1272.
  • The Object of Devotion for Observing the Mind (Kanjin-no Honzon-sho) — written in 1273.
  • The Selection of the Time (Senji-sho) — written in 1275.
  • On Repaying Debts of Gratitude (Ho'on-sho) — written in 1276.

Accordingly, the Taisekiji temple of Nichiren Shōshū revere an additional set of ten major writings. Other Nichiren sects either dispute them as secondary of importance, apocryphal, or forgery:[67]

  • On Chanting the Daimoku of the Lotus Sutra (Sho-hokke Daimoku-sho) — Written in 1260.
  • On Taking the Essence of the Lotus Sutra (Hokke Shuyo-sho) — written in 1274.
  • On the Four Stages of Faith and the Five Stages of Practice (Shishin Gohon-sho) — written in 1277.
  • Letter to Shimoyama (Shimoyama Gosho-soku) — written in 1277.
  • Questions and Answers on the Object of Devotion (Honzon Mondo-sho) — written in 1278.

Posthumous titles and status in major lineages

In his writings, Nichiren refers to his identity in a variety of ways, nevertheless always related to the Lotus Sutra. For example: "I, Nichiren, am the foremost votary of the Lotus Sutra".[69]


  1. Also translated as "On Establishing the Correct Teaching for the Peace of the Land" (The Writings of Nichiren Daishonin), "Establishment of the Legitimate Teaching for the Protection of the Country" (Selected Writings of Nichiren).
  2. "please build my grave on Mount Minobu, because that is where is where I spent nine years reciting the Lotus Sutra to my heart's content. My heart lives forever on Mount Minobu" (Montgomery, Daniel [1991]. Fire in the Lotus, The Dynamic Religion of Nichiren, London: Mandala, ISBN 978-1852740917, page 144 [Hakii-dono Gosho, Shingyo Hikkei, 105])
  3. Also translated as "On Establishing the Correct Teaching for the Peace of the Land" (The Writings of Nichiren Daishonin), "Establishment of the Legitimate Teaching for the Protection of the Country" (Selected Writings of Nichiren), and others.


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  60. Listing of Authenticated Gosho (Goibun) of Nichiren
  61. Kurihara, Toshie. 2003. "A History of Women in Japanese Buddhism: Nichiren's Perspectives on the Enlightenment of Women." The Journal of Oriental Studies, vol. 13. p.94 [1] Archived March 14, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  62. Oguri, Junko. 1987. Nyonin ojo: Nihon-shi ni miru onna no sukui (Women's Capacity to Be Reborn in the Pure Land: Women's Salvation in Japanese History). Jimbun Shoin, p. 122. See also: Oguri, Junko. 1984. "Views on Women's Salvation in Japanese Buddhism" in Young East 10/1, pp 3-11.
  63. [2](WND, p.385)
  64. Nyonin Gosho, Letters Addressed to Female Followers, Translated by Nichiren Shu Overseas Ministers in North America, Edited and Compiled by Kyotsu Hori, published 1995 by Nichiren Shu Overseas Propagation Promotion Association
  65. Soka Gakkai Dictionary of Buddhism, Soka Gakkai, "Five Major Writings"
  66. Dharma Flower, Ryuei Michael McCormick (2000), p. 156: "The five most important works of Nichiren. The five major writings are: Rissho ankoku ron (Treatise on Spreading Peace Throughout the Country by Establishing the True Dharma), Kaimoku sho (Open Your Eyes), Kanjin no honzon sho (Spiritual Contemplation and the Focus of Devotion), Senji sho (Selecting the Right Time), and Ho'on sho (Recompense of Indebtedness)."
  67. 67.0 67.1 Soka Gakkai Dictionary of Buddhism, Soka Gakkai, "Ten Major Writings".
  68. Soka Gakkai Dictionary of Buddhism, Soka Gakkai, "Rissho Ankoku Ron".
  69. "The Writings of Nichiren Daishonin I, SGI 2006, pp. 552: The Selection of the Time". Retrieved 2013-09-06. 
  70. Fire in The Lotus, Daniel B. Montgomery, Mandala 1991, pages 159, 294, ISBN 1-85274-091-4
  71. Sources of Japanese Tradition: Volume 1: From Earliest Times to 1600, Columbia University Press 2001, page 295, ISBN 978-0231129848
  72. Encyclopaedia Britannica
  73. Nichiren Shonin
  74. Introduction to True Buddhism, Nichiren Shoshu Temple, Myohoji 1999, page 13
  75. A Dictionary of Buddhist Terms and Concepts, Nichiren Shoshu International Center, page 300
  76. The Wisdom of the Lotus Sutra, vol. 5 p. 161, World Tribune Press, ISBN 0-915678-70-5
  77. The Wisdom of the Lotus Sutra, vol. 5 p.187, World Tribune Press, ISBN 0-915678-70-5


English translations of Nichiren's writings

  • The Major Writings of Nichiren Daishonin (WND). Soka Gakkai, Tokyo, 1999.
  • Heisei Shimpen Dai-Nichiren Gosho (平成新編 大日蓮御書: "Heisei new compilation of Nichiren's writings"), Taisekiji, 1994
  • The Writings of Nichiren Daishonin, Volume I. Burton Watson and the Gosho Translation Committee. Soka Gakkai, 2006. ISBN 4-412-01024-4
  • The Writings of Nichiren Daishonin Daishonin, Volume II. Burton Watson and the Gosho Translation Committee. Soka Gakkai, 2006. ISBN 4-412-01350-2
  • The Record of the Orally Transmitted Teachings. Burton Watson, trans. Soka Gakkai, 2005, ISBN 4-412-01286-7
  • Writings of Nichiren, Chicago, Middleway Press, 2013, The Opening of the Eyes.[1]
  • Writings of Nichiren, Doctrine 1, University of Hawai'i Press, 2003, ISBN 0-8248-2733-3
  • Writings of Nichiren Shonin, Doctrine 2, University of Hawai'i Press, 2002, ISBN 0-8248-2551-9
  • Writings of Nichiren Shonin, Doctrine 3, University of Hawai'i Press, 2004, ISBN 0-8248-2931-X
  • Writings of Nichiren Shonin, Doctrine 4, University of Hawai'i Press, 2007, ISBN 0-8248-3180-2
  • Writings of Nichiren Shonin, Doctrine 5, University of Hawai'i Press, 2008, ISBN 0-8248-3301-5
  • Writings of Nichiren Shonin, Doctrine 6, University of Hawai'i Press, 2010, ISBN 0-8248-3455-0
  • Letters of Nichiren. Burton Watson et al., trans.; Philip B. Yampolsky, ed. Columbia University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-231-10384-0
  • Selected Writings of Nichiren. Burton Watson et al., trans.; Philip B. Yampolsky, ed. Columbia University Press, 1990. ISBN 0-231-07260-0

External links

  1. Daisaku Ikeda (2013). "The Opening of the Eyes : Commentaries on the Writings of Nichiren". WorldCat library. Chicago : Middleway Press.