Nine categories of teachings
Nine categories of teachings (P. navaṅga; P. alt. pāvacana; S. navāṅga; T. gsung rab yan lag dgu; C. jiubu jing; J. kubu kyō; K. kubu kyŏng 九部經). Nine categories of teachings of the Buddha based on content, structure or literary style, according to the Pali tradition.
These nine categories are:
- Sutta (S. Sūtra): prose discourses, especially short declarative discourses.
- Geyya (S. Geya): mixed prose and verse discourse. Identified with the Sagāthāvagga of the Saṁyutta Nikāya
- Veyyakarana (S. Vyākarana): explanation, analysis. Discourses in question and answer format.
- Gāthā: verse
- Udāna: inspired speech
- Itivuttaka (S. Ityukta): fables
- Jātaka: story of previous life
- Abbhutadhamma (S. Abhutadharma): concerning wonders and miraculous events
- Vedalla (S. Vaipulya) either 'extended discourses' or 'those giving joy' (cf Mahayana Texts)
An additional three categories are identified within some Sanskrit traditions:
- Nidāna: in which the teachings are set within their circumstances of origin
- Avadāna: tales of exploits
- Upadesha: defined and considered instructions