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Nirmāṇakāya (T. sprul sku/sprul pa'i sku; C. huashen; J. keshin; K. hwasin), or emanation body, is one of the three kayas in the Sanskrit Mahayana tradition, where it has the following connotations:

  • The aspect of enlightenment that can be perceived by ordinary beings[1]
  • The physical manifestion of a buddha
  • The aspect of mind which manifests as thoughts, emotions and sensations


  1. Rangjung a-circle30px.jpg Nirmanakaya, Rangjung Yeshe Wiki