Non-concurrent formations (Skt. viprayukta saṃskāra; Tib. ལྡན་མིན་འདུ་བྱེད་, Wyl. ldan min 'du byed) are defined in the Sanskrit Abhidharma tradition as conditioned phenomena (samskara) that are neither matter nor consciousness.
The term non-concurrent formations (ldan min 'du byed) is used in the Tibetan tradition as a shortened form of the expression formations that are not concurrent with mind (S. cittaviprayuktasaṃskāra; T. sems dang ldan pa ma yin pa’i ’du byed; C. xin buxiangying fa 心不相應法).
In the Abhidharma tradition of the Vaibhāṣika school, the non-concurrent formations are understood as substantially existent entities. In the Sautrantika Abhidharma and in the Higher Abhidharma traditions, these formations are understood as imputations that arise from the mind.
Lists of non-concurrent formations
- Fourteen non-concurrent formations in the Abhidharma-kosha
- Twenty-four non-concurrent formations in the Gateway to Knowledge
- Twenty-three non-concurrent formations of the Abhidharma-samuccaya
- nonassociated formative factors (Science and Philosophy in the Indian Buddhist Classics)
- distinct formative factor (Lama Chökyi Nyima)
- non-associated conditioning factors (Padmakara)
- nonconcurrent formations (Erik Pema Kunsang, Light of Wisdom, Vol. 1)
- non-psychophysical aggregates (Samten & Garfield)
- abstract composites (Alan Wallace)
- anomalous creation (RTH, CPT)
- Thupten Jinpa (editor), Ian James Coghlan (translator), Science and Philosophy in the Indian Buddhist Classics, Volume 1: The Physical World (Wisdom: 2017), 141-150
- Erik Pema Kunsang (translator), Light of Wisdom, Volume 1 (Rangjung Yeshe Publications: 1999), pages 184-185.
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