of the supramundane path
sakṛdāgāmin (P. sakadāgāmin; T. lan gcig phyir 'ong ba; C. yilai/situohan 一來/斯陀含), or once-returner, is the second of the four stages of the supramundane path.
- view of a personal identity (satkāyadṛṣṭi)
- deluded doubt (vicikitsā)
- attachment to rites and rituals (śīlavrataparāmarśa)
A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma suggests that it is not clear where in the desire realm (aka “this world” (imaṃ lokaṃ)) the once-returner is reborn. The texts states:
- Ledi Sayadaw points out that the Commentaries offer two conflicting interpretations of the expression “this world” (imaṃ lokaṃ), to which the once-returner may return one more time. On one interpretation it is the human world, to which he may return from a heavenly world; on the other it is the sense-sphere world, to which he may return from a Brahma-world. Ledi Sayadaw maintains that in spite of commentarial support for the former interpretation, the second seems better supported by the canonical texts. According to the commentary to the Puggalapaññatti there are five kinds of once-returner:
- (1) One attains the fruit of once-returning in the human world, takes rebirth in the human world, and attains final Nibbāna here.
- (2) One attains the fruit of once-returning in the human world, takes rebirth in a heavenly world, and attains final Nibbāna there.
- (3) One attains the fruit in a heavenly world, takes rebirth in a heavenly world, and attains final Nibbāna there.
- (4) One attains the fruit in a heavenly world, takes rebirth in the human world, and attains final Nibbāna here.
- (5) One attains the fruit in the human world, takes rebirth in a heavenly world and passes the full life-span there, and then takes rebirth again in the human world, where one attains final Nibbāna.
- It should be noted that whereas the ekabījī stream-enterer has only one more rebirth, the fifth type of once-returner has two. Nevertheless, he is still called “once-returner” because he returns only once more to the human world.
- Bhikkhu Bodhi, ed. (2000), A Comprehensive Manual of Abhidhamma, Pariyatti Publishing
- Buswell, Robert E.; Lopez, Donald S. (2014), The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism, Princeton University
- Dalai Lama; Thubten Chodron (2014), Buddhism: One Teacher, Many Traditions, Wisdom Publications, "Chapter 2, Section: Three Jewels, The Pali Tradition"
- Nyanatiloka Thera (2019), Nyanaponika Thera, ed., Buddhist Dictionary: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines, Pariyatti Publishing