Apatrāpya

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Apatrāpya (P. ottappa; T. khrel yod pa; C. kui) is translated as "decorum," "modesty," "sense of shame," etc. It is a mental factor which is defined as shunning unwholesome actions so as to not be reproached by others of good character.[1][2]

Apatrāpya (Pali: ottappa) is identified as:

Apatrāpya is often paired with the mental factor hri (self-respect). The difference between hri (self-respect) and apatrapya (decorum) is that hri means to refrain from unwholesome actions due to one's own conscious, while apatrapya means to refrain from unwholesome actions to avoid being reproached by others.[1]

Definitions

Pali tradition

The Visuddhimagga (XIV, 142) describes ottappati (Pali) together with hiri (Pali):

It has conscientious scruples (hiriyati) about bodily misconduct, etc., thus it is conscience (hiri). This is a term for modesty. It is ashamed (ottappati) of those same things, thus it is shame (ottappa). This is a term for anxiety about evil. Herein, conscience has the characteristic of disgust at evil, while shame (ottappa) has the characteristic of dread of it. Conscience has the function of not doing evil and that in the mode of modesty, while shame has the function of not doing it and that in the mode of dread. They are manifested as shrinking from evil in the way already stated. Their proximate causes are self-respect and respect of others (respectively)...[3]

Nina van Gorkom states:

Moral shame and fear of blame always arise together but they are two different cetasikas with different characteristics. The Atthasalini (I, Part IV, Chapter 1, 125.127) gives a similar definition as the Visuddhimagga of moral shame and fear of blame and illustrates their difference. The Atthasalini explains that moral shame (hiri) has a subjective original, that its proximate cause is respect for oneself. Fear of blame (ottappa) has an external cause, it is influenced by the "world"; its proximate cause is respect for someone else.[3]

The opposities of the two above factors are: ahirika (lack of consciousness) and uddhacca (lack of shame).[3]

Sanskrit tradition

The Abhidharma-samuccaya states:

What is apatrapya? It is to avoid what is objectionable in the eyes of others.[1]

The Necklace of Clear Understanding states:

The difference between self-respect (hri) and decorum (apatrapya) is that, despite their similarity in avoiding evil actions, when the chance of doing evil actions is close at hand, self-respect means to refrain from evil actions in view of the consideration, "This is no part of mine." Decorum means to refrain from evil action by having made others the norm in view of the consideration, "It is not appropriate to do so because others will despise inc." (19a) The primary realm of restraint is the fear that one's guru and teacher and other people deserving respect would be annoyed.[1]

StudyBuddhism states:

Care for how our actions reflect on others (khrel-yod) is the sense to refrain from negative behavior because of caring how our actions reflect on those connected with us. Those connected with us may be, for instance, our family, teachers, social group, ethnic group, religious order, or countrymen. For Vasubandhu, this mental factor means having scruples, and is a restraint from being brazenly negative. This and the previous mental factor accompany all constructive states of mind.[4]

Alternate translations

  • decorum- Guenther, Rangjung Yeshe Wiki
  • shame - Erik Pema Kunsang
  • consideration, sense of shame - Rangjung Yeshe Wiki
  • propriety - Rigpa wiki
  • fear of blame - Nina von Gorkom
  • modesty, blame - Buswell

See also

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Yeshe Gyeltsen 1975, s.v. Decorum [khrel yod-pa].
  2. Mipham Rinpoche 2004, s.v. Shame.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 van Gorkom 1999, Cetasikas, Moral Shame and Fear of Blame (hiri and ottappa)
  4. Berzin, s.v. Care for how our actions reflect on others (khrel-yod).


References

External links

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