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Pañcavidyā (Sanskrit), five classes of knowledge (Vidyā) of ancient India. The five sciences are: science of language (śabda vidyā), science of logic (hetu vidyā), science of medicine (cikitsā vidyā), science of fine arts and crafts (śilpa-karma-sthāna vidyā), and science of spirituality (adhyātma vidyā).[1]

The first four are common for all schools and the latter is the theory of each school of thought, for example it is the Tripitaka for Buddhists, and the four Vedas for Brahmins. In the Buddhist context, a recognized master of all five sciences was afforded the title paṇḍita.


  1. The Dharma's Gatekeepers: Sakya Paṇḍita on Buddhist scholarship in Tibet by Jonathan C. Gold. SUNY Press. pg 15 [1]

  1. 佛家因明的理性思考 蔡禮德 Hetu-Vidyā Of Rational Thinking, Choy L.T.(2008)
    • 逻辑学(Logic)及简单枚举归纳法(Induction by Simple Enumeration)
    • 科学方法(Scientific Method)及假设演绎法(Hypothetico-Deductive Method)
  2. 佛家因明的理性思考再探 蔡禮德 Hetu-Vidyā Of Rational Thinking(II), Choy L.T.(2009)
    • 因明的辨义理(Meaning & Argument Analysis)方法,具有语理分析(Linguistic - conceptual Analysis)及谬误剖析(Fallacy Analysis)的元素。
  3. 佛家因明的理性思考三探 蔡禮德 Hetu-Vidyā Of Rational Thinking(III), Choy L.T.(2010)
    • 「现量」及「比量」意谓真
    • 「似现量」及「似比量」意谓非真。
  4. 因明邏輯真值量化的探索 李潤生、 蔡禮德 (2006)
  5. 「因明逻辑真值的量化公式」与贝尔斯学派统计学 蔡禮德 Quantification Formula Of Hetu-Vidyā Logical Truth-Value And Bayesian School Statistics, Choy L.T.(2008)
  6. 佛家因明提綱 蔡禮德 A Hetu-Vidyā Framework, Choy L.T.(2013)
    • 因明與菩薩行五明
  7. 佛家因明的概念功能與分類 蔡禮德 A Hetu-Vidyā Framework(II), Choy L.T. (2013)
  8. 唯識宗的世界概念:由假說我法(一) 蔡禮德 Choy L.T.(2014)
  9. 佛家「因明」指导「内明」 蔡礼德 Choy L.T. (2014)
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