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paranirmitavaśavartin (P. paranimmitavasavatti; T. gzhan ’phrul dbang byed; C. tahua zizai tian 他化自在天) is sixth and highest of the six deva realms of the kāmadhātu.

This realm is in the sky high above the Nirmāṇarataya realm.

The Princeton Dictionary states:

This heaven is so named because the divinities there not only control their own emanations or creations (as do the divinities of the heaven of the enjoyment of creation, or Nirmāṇarataya), but also have the ability to control the emanations of other beings. They are the tallest and longest-lived of all divinities in the sensuous realm.[1]

In this realm, 1,600 human years is calculated as one day and night. The measure of their lifespan is 16,000 years, where thirty such days make one month and twelve such months make one year.[2][3] (This lifespan is equivalent to 2,304 million years in the human realm.)[2]


  1. Buswell & Lopez 2014, s.v. paranirmitavaśavartin.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Chim Jampaiyang 2019, s.v. Chapter 17.
  3. Access to insight icon 50px.png Visakhuposatha Sutta, Access to Insight