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Kshanti (Skt. kṣānti; P. khanti; T. bzod pa བཟོད་པ་; C. renru; J. ninniku; K. inyok) is translated as "fortitude," "patience", "tolerance", "forbearance", etc.

The Khenjuk states:

Fortitude means to gladly undertake and bear difficult tasks without being upset by anything whatsoever. It can be divided into three types: the fortitude of not taking offence at harm-doers, the fortitude of gladly undertaking difficulties, such as accepting hardship for the sake of the Dharma, and the fortitude of being unafraid of the deep meaning.[1]

A Treatise on the Paramis states:

Patience is the unimpeded weapon of the good in the development of noble qualities, for it dispels anger, the opposite of all such qualities, without residue. It is the adornment of those capable of vanquishing the foe; the strength of recluses and brahmans; a stream of water extinguishing the fire of anger; the basis for acquiring a good reputation; a mantra for quelling the poisonous speech of evil people; the supreme source of constancy in those established in restraint. Patience is an ocean on account of its depth; a shore bounding the great ocean of hatred; a panel closing off the door to the plane of misery; a staircase ascending to the worlds of the gods and Brahmaas; the ground for the habitation of all noble qualities; the supreme purification of body, speech and mind.[2]

The Dhammapada states:

He endures — unangered —
insult, assault, & imprisonment.
His army is strength;
his strength, forbearance:
he's what I call
a brahman.[3]

Kshanti paramita

The "perfection of fortitude" (kṣānti-pāramitā) is identified as:


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  1. Mipham Rinpoche 2002, s.v. paragraph 18.12.
  2. Acariya Dhammapala 2005, "Introduction" by Bhikkhu Bodhi.
  3. Thanissaro (1997a)., verse 399


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