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Pratyakṣa (T. mngon sum tshad ma, མངོན་སུམ་ཚད་མ་; C. xianliang), or direct perception, is defined as "an unmistaken non-conceptual cognition".[1]


  1. Valid sensory direct perception (Wyl. dbang po'i mngon sum tshad ma)
  2. Valid mental direct perception (Wyl. yid kyi mngon sum tshad ma)
  3. Valid direct perception of self-awareness (Wyl. rang rig mngon sum tshad ma)
  4. Valid yogic direct perception (Wyl. rnal 'byor mngon sum tshad ma)


  1. རྟོག་བྲལ་མ་འཁྲུལ་པའི་ཤེས་པ་, rtog bral ma 'khrul pa'i shes pa

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