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The [[Huayan school|Hua Yen]] school taught the doctrine of the mutual containment and interpenetration of all phenomena, as expressed in [[Indra's net]]. One thing contains all other existing things, and all existing things contain that one thing. This philosophy is based in the tradition of the great Madhyamaka scholar [[Nagarjuna]] and, more specifically, on the [[Avatamsaka Sutra]]. Regarded by [[D.T. Suzuki]] as the crowning achievement of Buddhist philosophy, the ''Avatamsaka Sutra'' elaborates in great detail on the principal of dependent origination. This sutra describes a cosmos of infinite realms upon realms, mutually containing one another.
====DzogchenTibetan Buddhism====
In [[Dzogchen]] tradition of [[Tibetan Buddhism]], the concept of dependent origination is considered to be complementary to the concept of emptiness. Specifically, this tradition emphasizes the indivisibility of appearance and emptiness—also known as the relative and absolute aspects of reality.{{sfn|Anyen Rinpoche|2012|pp=58-59}} In this context:
* Appearance (relative truth) refers to the concept that all appearances are dependently originated
Anyen Rinpoche explains the significance of this understanding for a Dzogchen practitioner:{{sfn|Anyen Rinpoche|2012|p=133}}
: We gain personal experience through meditation practice and becoming accustomed to naturally seeing appearance and emptiness in union. If we develop confidence in the nature of dependent arising, this will greatly support our personal experience of actual meditation. We could say that it is through our understanding of dependent arising that appearance and emptiness become equal.
Sogyal Rinpoche explains the dangers for a Dzogchen practitioner of misunderstanding this relationship:{{sfn|Sogyal Rinpoche|2009|p=156}}
: The Dzogchen masters are acutely aware of the dangers of confusing the absolute with the relative.{{refn|group=lower-alpha|Note that in this context the terms ''absolute'' and ''relative'' refer to absolute truth (emptiness) and relative truth (appearances arise due to dependent origination).}} People who fail to understand this relationship can overlook and even disdain the relative aspects of spiritual practice and the karmic law of cause and effect. However, those who truly seize the meaning of Dzogchen will have only a deeper respect for [[Karma (Buddhism)|karma]], as well as a keener and more urgent appreciation of the need for purification and for spiritual practice. This is because they will understand the vastness of what it is in them that has been obscured, and so endeavor all the more fervently, and with an always fresh, natural discipline, to remove whatever stands between them and their true nature.
One of the founders of Tibetan Buddhism, [[Padmasambhava]], emphasized his respect for this relationship as follows:{{sfn|Sogyal Rinpoche|2009|p=169}}
:Though my View is as spacious as the sky,
:My actions and respect for cause and effect are as fine as grains of flour.
{{quote box
|quote = [One says], "all these (configurations of events and meanings) come about and disappear according to dependent origination." But, like a burnt seed, since a nonexistent (result) does not come about from a nonexistent (cause), cause and effect do not exist.
|source = From ''byang chub sems bsgom pa'', by [[Mañjusrîmitra]]. Primordial experience. An Introduction to rDzogs-chen Meditation, Shambhala (December 11, 2001), ISBN 978-1570628986, p. 60
==Comparative studies==

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