Sravakayana

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Shravakas, from Tibetan Buddhist thangka
Translations of
Sravakayana
English vehicle of the disciples,
vehicle of listeners and hearers
Pali śrāvaka yāna
Sanskrit śrāvaka yāna
Chinese 聲聞乘
(Pinyinshengwen sheng)
Japanese -
(rōmaji: shōmonjō)
Korean -
(RR: sŏngmun sŭng)
Tibetan ཉན་ཐོས་ཀྱི་ཐེག་པ་
(Wylie: snyan thos kyi theg pa
THL: nyentö kyi tekpa
)

Śrāvakayāna (Sanskrit, Pali) is one of the three vehicles within the Mahayana classification of the path.

Sravakayana is translated as "vehicle of listeners" or "vehicle of disciples".

The śrāvakas are said to be motivated by a feeling of renunciation, the wish to escape from all the realms of samsara by themselves alone.

The result of the śrāvaka-yāna path is the level of Arhat—an individual who achieves liberation as a result of listening to the teachings (or lineage) of a Samyaksaṃbuddha.

In Early Buddhist schools

At least some of the early Buddhist schools used the concept of three vehicles including Śrāvakayāna. For example, the Vaibhāṣika Sarvāstivādins are known to have employed the outlook of Buddhist practice as consisting of the Three Vehicles:[1]

  1. Śrāvakayāna
  2. Pratyekabuddhayāna
  3. Bodhisattvayāna

The Dharmaguptakas regarded the path of a śrāvaka (śrāvakayāna) and the path of a bodhisattva (bodhisattvayāna) to be separate. One of their tenets reads, "The Buddha and those of the Two Vehicles, although they have one and the same liberation, have followed different noble paths."[2]

In Mahāyāna traditions

In the 4th century Mahāyāna abhidharma work Abhidharmasamuccaya, Asaṅga describes those who follow the Śrāvaka Vehicle (Skt. śrāvakayanika). These people are described as having weak faculties, following the Śrāvaka Dharma, utilizing the Śrāvaka Piṭaka, being set on their own liberation, and cultivating detachment in order to attain liberation.[3] While those in the Pratyekabuddha Vehicle (Skt. pratyekabuddhayānika) are portrayed as also utilizing the Śrāvaka Piṭaka, they are said to have medium faculties, to follow the Pratyekabuddha Dharma, and to be set on their own personal enlightenment.[3] Finally, those in the Mahāyāna (Skt. mahāyānika) are portrayed as utilizing the Bodhisattva Piṭaka, as having sharp faculties, following the Bodhisattva Dharma, and set on the perfection and liberation of all beings, and the attainment of complete enlightenment.[3]

Sravakayana within the nine yanas

The Nine Yanas
Sutrayana (Outer Yanas)
1. Sravakayana
2. Pratyekabuddhayana
3. Bodhisattvayana
Three outer tantras
4. Yana of kriya tantra
5. Yana of charya tantra
6. Yana of yoga tantra
Three inner tantras
7. Yana of mahayoga
8. Yana of anuyoga
9. Yana of atiyoga
Related topics
Tibetan Canon ~ Four classes

In the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism, this yana is the first of the nine yanas. Alak Zenkar Rinpoche explains sravakayana from the point of view of the Nyingma school as follows:

Generally speaking, the Sanskrit word ‘shravaka’ has both the meaning of listening and of hearing, so [the Tibetan translation nyenthö literally means] ‘listener-hearer.’ Alternatively, the term can be understood to mean ‘listening and proclaiming,’ in the sense that the shravakas rely on masters and then proclaim to others all the words their teachers have spoken.

The initial entry point, the view, the meditation, the conduct and the results of the śrāvaka vehicle will now be explained below.

i. Entry Point

The śrāvakas are motivated by a feeling of renunciation, the wish to escape from all the realms of samsara by themselves alone. With this motivation, they receive one of the seven sets of pratimokṣa vows, those of a male or female lay practitioner, novice monk or nun, probationary nun, or fully ordained monk or nun, and having received these vows, they practise moral restraint, keeping their vows unimpaired, repairing any impairments that do occur, and so on.

ii. View

As the basis of their path, they determine their view by focusing upon all phenomena included within the five aggregates and realizing that they are devoid of any personal self. They do not understand that all material and conscious phenomena are devoid of true reality, and, asserting a truly real partless particle in perceived objects and an indivisible moment of consciousness, they fail to realize the absence of phenomenal identity.

iii. Meditation

In terms of the path, they practise both śamatha and vipaśyanā meditation. They realize the state of śamatha by abandoning obstacles and cultivating factors conducive to samādhi, according to the nine stages of resting the mind and so on, and generate the wisdom of vipaśyanā by meditating on the sixteen aspects of the four truths.

iv. Conduct

They keep to the twelve ascetic practices[4] that avoid the two extreme forms of lifestyle, over-indulgence in sense pleasures[5] and excessive self-punishment.

v. Results

They attain any one of eight levels of fruition, corresponding to the degree to which they have abandoned the kleshas of the three realms. There are eight levels because the four results of stream-enterer, once-returner, non-returner and arhat are each divided into the two stages known as the emerging and the established.[4]

See also

Notes

  1. Nakamura, Hajime. Indian Buddhism: A Survey With Bibliographical Notes. 1999. p. 189
  2. 《異部宗輪論述記》:謂佛雖在僧中所攝,然別施佛果大,非僧(果大)。於窣堵波興供養業獲廣大果。佛與二乘解脫雖一,而聖道異。無諸外道能得五通。阿羅漢身皆是無漏。餘義多同大眾部執。
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Boin-Webb, Sara (tr). Rahula, Walpola (tr). Asanga. Abhidharma Samuccaya: The Compendium of Higher Teaching. 2001. p. 199-200
  4. LotsawaHouse-tag.png A Brief Presentation of the Nine Yanas by Alak Zenkar Rinpoche


Sources

  • RW icon height 18px.png Shravaka yana
  • Princeton Dict icon 166px.png Robert E. Buswell Jr., Donald S. Lopez Jr., The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism (Princeton: 2014), entry for śrāvakayāna
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