A śrāmaṇera (P. sāmaṇera; T. dge tshul དགེ་ཚུལ་; C. shami) is a novice monk (bhikṣu) in the Buddhist tradition. A female novitiate is called a śrāmaṇerī or śrāmaṇerikā (P. sāmaṇerī). The novice monastic (monk or nun) is a preliminary stage before becoming a fully ordained monastic.
- The King (Suddhodana), discovering that now his grandson and a number of young men in the royal family had requested ordination, asked the Buddha only to ordain a minor with the consent of his parents or guardian. The Buddha assented. This rule was expanded to include the spouses of those intending to join the Order of monks and nuns".
Novice monastics in the Theravada tradition follow a set of ten precepts:
- Refrain from killing living things.
- Refrain from stealing.
- Refrain from unchastity (sensuality, sexuality, lust).
- Refrain from lying.
- Refrain from taking intoxicants.
- Refrain from taking food at inappropriate times (after noon).
- Refrain from singing, dancing, playing music or attending entertainment programs (performances).
- Refrain from wearing perfume, cosmetics and garland (decorative accessories).
- Refrain from sitting on high chairs and sleeping on luxurious, soft beds.
- Refrain from accepting money.
- Sumedho, Ajahn (2014). Peace is a Simple Step (PDF). Amaravati Publications. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-78432-000-3.
- "Wall paintings ·· coming home, see section Buddha's son". buddhamind.info. Retrieved 2013-11-06.
- The Bhikkhunis' Code of Discipline (Bhikkhuni Patimokkha) Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu
- Buddhist Monastic Code II: Bhikkhunis[permanent dead link]
- the website of Bhante Sujato's Writings contains several (ancient and modern) texts on the role and ordination of women in Buddhism.
- Bhikkhuni committee of the ASA includes a large resource of articles regarding Bhikkhunis
- Monastic Resources - Training
- "Female Monks In Buddhism", by Dhammacaro (07/23/2005).
- "Vinaya Pitaka", brief description includes "Order of ordination for men and women...."
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