Ten views of the self

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The ten views of the self are indentified in the Madhyantavibhaga as obstacles to the spiritual path. According to the text, these ten views are eliminated through understanding the ten topics of knowledge.

The ten views are seeing the self as:

  1. singular (Wyl. gcig)
  2. cause (Wyl. rgyu)
  3. experiencer (Wyl. za ba po)
  4. creator (Wyl. byed pa po)
  5. in control (Wyl. dbang bsgyur)
  6. mine (Wyl. bdag gi don)
  7. permanent (Wyl. rtag pa)
  8. the seat of afflictions and purity (Wyl. nyon mongs pa dang dag pa’i gnas)
  9. practitioner (Wyl. rnal 'byor can)
  10. non-liberated and liberated (Wyl. ma grol grol).

As presented in the text

The ten views are presented in the Madhyantavibhanga as follows:

Single, the cause and consumer,
The agent and in control,
The owner and permanent,
Afflicted and then purified,
Possessor of yoga, unfree and then freed—
These are ten views of self.[1]


  1. གཅིག་དང་རྒྱུ་དང་ཟ་བ་དང་།

Further reading

This article includes content from Ten views of the self on Rigpawiki (view authors). Licensed under CC BY-NC 3.0 RW icon height 18px.png