Tengyur (Tib. བསྟན་འགྱུར་, Wyl. bstan 'gyur), literally "translated treatises", is one of the two branches of the Tibetan Buddhist Canon.
The Tengyur contains Tibetan translations of works written by Indian Buddhist masters that explain and elaborate on the words of the Buddha. The Tengyur also contains texts on the Abhidharma, stories of the Buddha's previous lives, and other types of texts.
The divisions of the Tengyur according to the Degé edition are shown below.
- Eulogy (བསྟོད་ཚོགས། · bstod tshogs)
- Tantra (རྒྱུད། · rgyud)
- Sūtra commentary and philosophy
- Abhidharma (མངོན་པ། · mngon pa)
- Disciple (འདུལ་བ། · 'dul ba)
- Jataka (སྐྱེས་རབས། · skyes rabs)
- Epistles (སྤྲིང་ཡིག་ · spring yig)
- Epistemology and logic (ཚད་མ། · tshad ma)
- Traditional sciences and arts
- Works of Atiśa (ཇོ་བོའི་ཆོས་ཆུང། · jo bo'i chos chung)
- Tengyur catalogue (བསྟན་འགྱུར་དཀར་ཆག། · bstan 'gyur dkar chag)
As example, the content of the Beijing Tengyur:
- Stotras ("Hymns of Praise"): 1 Volume; 64 texts.
- Commentaries on the Tantras: 86 Volumes; 3055 texts.
- Commentaries on Sutras; 137 Volumes; 567 texts.
- Prajnaparamita Commentaries, 16 Volumes.
- Madhyamika Treatises, 29 Volumes.
- Yogacara Treatises, 29 Volumes.
- Abhidharma, 8 Volumes.
- Miscellaneous Texts, 4 Volumes.
- Vinaya Commentaries, 16 Volumes.
- Tales and Dramas, 4 Volumes.
- Technical Treatises, 43 Volumes.
In total there are currently five known Tengyur editions, all of which are printed xylograph collections. Stanley David claims that there is much greater uniformity among Tengyur editions than those of the Kangyur and thus he divides them into two groups:
In addition, there is the Pedurma (dpe bsdur ma) edition, which is a comparative edition, recently created, based the Derge collection.
Authors represented in the Tengyur
The Tenjur contains a number of commentaries composed by Indian authors. Below are the authors the tradition holds to be of paramount importance.
Important Indian scholars
- Asanga, founder of the Yogacara philosophical school
- Nagarjuna, founder of the Madhyamaka philosophical school
Six Scholarly Ornaments
- Aryadeva, foremost disciple of Nagarjuna who continued his Madhyamaka philosophical school
- Dharmakirti, famed logician, author of the Seven Treatises; student of Dignāga's student Iśvarasena; said to have debated famed Hindu scholar Adi Shankara
- Dignāga, famed logician
- Vasubandhu, Asanga's brother
- Gunaprabha, foremost student of Vasubandhu, known for his work the Vinayasutra
- Sakyaprabha, prominent exponent of the Vinaya
Seventeen Great Panditas
References are sometimes made to the Seventeen Great Panditas. This formulation groups the eight listed above with the following nine scholars.
- Atiśa, holder of the lojong teachings
- Bhāviveka, early expositor of the Svātantrika interpretation of Madhyamaka
- Buddhapālita, early expositor of the Prasaṅgika interpretation of Madhyamaka
- Candrakīrti, considered the greatest exponent of the Prasaṅgika interpretation
- Haribhadra, commentator on Asanga's Ornament of Clear Realization
- Kamalaśīla, 8th-century author of important texts on meditation
- Śāntarakṣita, abbot of Nalanda, founder of the Yogācāra-Svatantrika-Mādhyamaka interpretation who reputedly helped Padmasambhava establish Buddhism in Tibet
- Shantideva, 8th century Indian author of the Bodhisattvacaryāvatāra
- Vimuktisena, commentator on Asanga's Ornament of Clear Realization
- The Tibetan Canon by Buddhanet.org
- Stanley, David Phillip. Tibetan Buddhist Canon. Tibetan and Himalayan Digital Library (THL), 2005. http://www.thlib.org/encyclopedias/literary/canons/index.php#!essay=/stanley/tibcanons/s/b2
- Kalu Rinpoche, Luminous Mind: The Way of the Buddha. Wisdom Publications,1997. p. 285
- Schlagintweit, Emil (2006) Buddhism in Tibet: Illustrated by Literary Documents and Objects Of Religious Worship With An Account Of The Buddhist Systems Preceding It In India ISBN 1-4286-4999-9
- Stein, R. A. (1962) Tibetan Civilization. First English edition - translated by J. E. Stapleton Driver (1972). Reprint (1972): Stanford University Press, Stanford, California ISBN 0-8047-0806-1 (cloth); ISBN 0-8047-0901-7
- Tucci, Giuseppe. The Religions of Tibet. (1970). First English edition, translated by Geoffrey Samuel (1980). Reprint: (1988), University of California Press ISBN 0-520-03856-8 (cloth); ISBN 0520063481 (pbk)
- Facts and Figures about Kangyur and Tengyur
- Tibetan Buddhist Canon - The Tengyur, by D. Phillip Stanley
- Tibetan Buddhist Canon - Editions of the Tengyur by D. Phillip Stanley
English language translations of texts from the Tengyur:
Tibetan language Tengyur collections:
- bstan 'gyur (Tengyur - Tibetan language texts)
- American Institute of Buddhist Studies - Tengyur Collection
- Asian Classics Input Project - Derge Tengyur etext
|This article includes content from Tengyur on Wikipedia (view authors). License under CC BY-SA 3.0.|
|This article includes content from Tengyur on Rigpawiki (view authors). Licensed under CC BY-NC 3.0|