Thirty-seven factors of enlightenment

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The thirty-seven factors of enlightenment (Skt. saptatriṁśa-bodhipākṣikadharma; P. bodhipakkhiyadhamma; T. byang chub kyi phyogs kyi chos sum cu rtsa bdun བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་ཕྱོགས་ཀྱི་ཆོས་སུམ་ཅུ་རྩ་བདུན་; C. puti fen/sanshiqi daopin) are thirty-seven factors, presented in seven groupings, that lead to enlightenment.

The seven sets of factors are:

These factors are identified in the texts in both the Pali tradition and the Sanskrit tradition.

Sanskrit tradition

In the Sanskrit Mahayana tradition, these factors are presented on different levels. For example:[1]

  • on the general level, these factors can be practiced by ordinary beings
  • on a higher level, these practices are undertaken and perfected at specific stages of the first four of the five paths of the bodhisattva vehicle, and are present thereafter as qualities of buddhahood.[2]

Alternative translations

  • thirty-seven wings of enlightenment (Dharma Publishing)
  • thirty-seven requisites of enlightenment (Bhikkhu Bodhi, I.B. Horner)


Further reading

  • Kangyur Rinpoche, Treasury of Precious Qualities (Boston & London: Shambhala, 2001), 'Appendix 6'.
  • Book icoline.svg Dharmachakra Translation Committee (2007), Middle Beyond Extremes: Maitreya's Madhyantavibhaga with Commentaries by Khenpo Shenga and Ju Mipham, Snow Lion Publications , Chapter 4
  • Book icoline.svg Mipham Rinpoche (2002), Gateway to Knowledge, vol. III, translated by Kunsang, Erik Pema, Rangjung Yeshe Publications , Chapter 18

External links

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