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Trisvabhāva (T. mtshan nyid gsum/rang bzhin gsum; C. sanxing 三性), or the three natures, is a key doctrine of the Yogacara school that presents a model of our experiences and phenomena in terms of three natures.

The three natures are:

  1. Parikalpita-svabhāva (T. kun brtags mtshan nyid): "imputed nature"
  2. Paratantra-svabhāva ( T. gzhan dbang mtshan nyid): "dependent nature"
  3. Pariniṣpanna-svabhāva (T. yongs grub mtshan nyid): "truly existent nature"

Alternative translations

  • Imaginary, Other-dependent & Perfect (Karl Brunnhölzl)
  • Imagined, Other-dependent & Consummate (Jay L. Garfield)
  • Imputation, Dependence & the Absolute (Richard Barron)
  • Imaginary, Dependent & Thoroughly Established (Dharmachakra Translation Group)

Canonical literature

See also

Further reading

  • Connelly, Ben. Inside Vasubandhu's Yogacara, Wisdom, 2016
  • D'Amato, M. "Three Stages: An Interpretation of the Yogacara Trisvabhava-Theory." Journal of Indian Philosophy. (2005) 33:185-207
  • Garfield, Jay L. "Vasubandhu's Treatise on the Three Natures" in Empty Words: Buddhist Philosophy and Cross-Cultural Interpretation, Oxford University Press, 2002
  • Karr, Andy. Contemplating Reality (Boston: Shambala Publications, 2007), Chapter 9
  • Siderits, Mark. Buddhism as Philosophy: An Introduction (Hacket: 2012), "Chapter 8: Yogacara"
  • Westerhoff, Jan. The Golden Age of Indian Buddhist Philosophy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018), 182-183

External links

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