three dharma seals
The three seals (Sanskrit: trimudrā) or three dharma seals (Sanskrit: tri dharma mudra) is a formulation of the fundamental tenets of Buddhism that is commonly used in East Asian Buddhism. "Any teaching that does not bear these Three Seals cannot be said to be a teaching of the Buddha."
- in the Theravada tradition, the three dharma seals, more commonly known as the three marks of existence, are impermanence, nonself, and dukkha.
- in the Tibetan tradition, the four dharma seals is the most common expression of the basic tenets. The four dharma seals are also referenced by East Asian Buddhist teachers.
- Yun, Hsing (2008). "The Core Teachings". Buddha's Light Publishing. p. 49. ISBN 9781932293326.
- Nhất Hạnh, Thích (1998). The Heart of the Buddha's Teaching: Transforming Suffering Into Peace, Joy & Liberation : the Four Noble Truths, the Noble Eightfold Path, and Other Basic Buddhist Teachings. Broadway Books. ISBN 9780767903691.
- http://enkyojibuddhistnetwork.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/The-Three-Dharma-Seals-1.pdf (Thich Nhat Hanh)
- https://www.lionsroar.com/the-practice-of-looking-deeply/ (Thich Nhat Hanh)
- http://www.chinabuddhismencyclopedia.com/en/index.php/Understanding_The_Three_Dharma_Seals (Chinese term, Japanese term)
- https://www.nichirenlibrary.org/en/dic/Content/T/114 (shows Japanese term)
|This article is developed by our editors based on the sources cited.|